Tower of London

Castle in/near Tower Hill, existing until now

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Castle · Tower Hill · EC3N · Contributed by The Underground Map
July
19
2013
The Tower of London seen from across the River Thames (2006)
Credit: Pikous

In the late 1070s, William the Conqueror began to build a massive stone tower at the centre of his London fortress. Nothing like it had ever been seen before.

The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The Tower of London was used as a prison from 1100 (Ranulf Flambard) until 1952 (the Kray twins) although that was not its primary purpose.

A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times and controlling it has been important to controlling the country. The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public records office, and the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, and despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery.

The peak period of the castle's use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, were held within its walls. This use has led to the phrase sent to the Tower. Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period.

In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison, and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired and the castle reopened to the public. Today the Tower of London is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions. It is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site.

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VIEW THE TOWER HILL AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE TOWER HILL AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE TOWER HILL AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE TOWER HILL AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE TOWER HILL AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Tower Hill

Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London.

Formerly Tower Hill was part of the Tower Liberty under the direct administrative control of Tower. Part of one of the oldest parts of London, archaeological evidence shows that there was a settlement on the hill in the Bronze Age and much later a Roman village that was burnt down during the Boudica uprising.

A nearby church, All Hallows-by-the-Tower, is known for fragments of Romanesque architecture dating back to AD 680.

Public executions of high-profile traitors and criminals were often carried out on Tower Hill.

Tower of London tube station opened in 1882 during the construction of the Metropolitan Railway to the north. A new station was opened in 1884 with the name Mark Lane (later renamed Tower Hill), just to the west of the Tower of London station, which closed the same day.

When the original Tower Hill station was itself closed in 1967, the current Tower Hill station was opened on the site of the Tower of London station. The remains of the old station were demolished by the construction of the new station.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
All Hallows-by-the-Tower:   All Hallows-by-the-Tower is the oldest church in London with a story involving Samuel Pepys, royalty and the foundation of Pennsylvania.
Fenchurch Street:   Fenchurch Street railway station is a central London railway terminus in the southeastern corner of the City of London. It is one of the smallest railway termini in London but in terms of platforms, one of the most intensively operated.
Tower Gateway:   Tower Gateway is a Docklands Light Railway station near to the Tower of London.
Tower Hill:   Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Abbots Lane, SE1 · America Square, EC3N · Back Alley, EC3N · Billiter Square, EC3M · Billiter Street, EC3M · Byward Street, EC3R · Cardamom Building, SE1 · Carlisle Avenue, EC3N · Clothworkers Hall, EC3R · Commercial Pier Wharf, SE16 · Cooper?s Row, EC3N · Coopers Row, EC3N · Copper Row, SE1 · Crescent, EC3N · Cresent, EC3N · Crosswall, EC3N · Crutched Friars, EC3N · Dunster Court, EC3R · Fenchurch Avenue, EC3M · Fenchurch Buildings, EC3M · Fenchurch Place, EC3M · Fenchurch Street, EC3M · Goodman?s Yard, E1 · Goodmans Yard, E1 · Great Tower Street, EC3R · Harp Lane, EC3R · Hart Street, EC3R · Haydon Street, E1 · Haydon Street, EC3N · Horselydown Lane, SE1 · Ibex House, EC3N · India Street, EC3N · Jewry Street, EC3N · Library Square, E1 · Lloyd?s Avenue, EC3N · Lloyds Avenue, EC3N · London Street, EC3R · Maggie Blake’s Cause, SE1 · Maggie Blake’s Cause, SE1 · Mansell Street, E1 · Mansell Street, EC3N · Mark Lane, EC3R · Mincing Lane, EC3R · Minories, E1 · Minories, EC3N · Minster Court, EC3R · More London Place, SE1 · More London Riverside, SE1 · Morgans Lane, SE1 · Munster Court, SW6 · Muscovy Street, EC3R · New London Street, EC3R · One America Square, EC3N · Pepys Street, EC3N · Petty Wales, EC3N · Portsoken Street, E1 · Potters Fields, SE1 · Railway Arches, EC3N · Raven Wharf, SE1 · Royal Mint Court, EC3N · Saracen?s Head Yard, EC3N · Savage Gardens, EC3N · Seething Lane, EC3N · Shad Thames, SE1 · Shorter Street, E1 · Shorter Street, EC3N · St Clare House, EC3N · St Clare Street, EC3N · St Katharine’s Way, E1W · Sugar Quay Walk, EC3N · Sugar Quay Walk, SE1 · The Queen?s Steps, EC3N · The Queen’s Steps, EC3N · Tooley Street, SE1 · Tower Bridge Approach, E1W · Tower Bridge Approach, EC3N · Tower Bridge Piazza, SE1 · Tower Bridge, E1W · Tower Bridge, SE1 · Tower Hill Terrace, EC3N · Tower Hill, EC3N · Tower Place West, EC3R · Tower Place, EC3R · Tower Walk, E1W · Trinity Square, EC3N · Vine Lane, SE1 · Vine Street, EC3N · Weavers Lane, SE1 · West Tenter Street, E1 ·


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Central London, south east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, south east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Central London, north east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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