Russell SquareBloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area.
station, now on London's Piccadully Line, was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. The building was designed by Leslie Green and is a Grade II listed building.
The square is named after the surname of the Earls and Dukes of Bedford, who developed the family's London landholdings in the 17th and 18th centuries, beginning with Covent Garden
(Bedford Street). Russell Square
was formed when new streets were laid out by the Duke on the site of the gardens of his former home Bedford House, their London house. Other local street names relating to the Duke of Bedford include Bedford Square
, Bedford Place
, Bedford Avenue
, Bedford Row
and Bedford Way
; Woburn Square
and Woburn Place
(from Woburn Abbey); Tavistock Square
, Tavistock Place
and Tavistock Street
(Marquess of Tavistock), and Thornhaugh Street
(after a subsidiary title Baron of Thornhaugh). The street lamps around this area carry the Bedford Arms.
The station is situated on Bernard Street
, Bloomsbury. It is a small but busy station, used by office workers and tourists staying in Bloomsbury's numerous hotels.
On 7 July 2005, in a co-ordinated bomb attack, an explosion in a train travelling between King's Cross St. Pancras and Russell Square
resulted in the deaths of 26 people, making up nearly half of the total fatalities from the series of attacks and also causing damage to the tunnel. It was the last of the three bombs used in the attacks on the underground, although another bomb would later explode on a bus.
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The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is the 1086 Domesday Book, which records that the area had vineyards and 'wood for 100 pigs'. But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.
The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi
– the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called Lomesbury
which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square
is now, though this piece of folk etymology is now discredited.
At the end of the 14th century Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century, with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown, and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square
. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House
and developed the land to the north with Russell Square
as its centrepiece.
Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.
The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square
, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square
. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street
The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre
, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012.