Waterloo Bridge

Bridge in/near Waterloo, existing between 1817 and now

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Bridge · Waterloo · WC2R · Contributed by The Underground Map
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2013


Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, England between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge.

Thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views of London (Westminster, the South Bank and London Eye to the west, the City of London and Canary Wharf to the east) from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot at ground level.

The name of the bridge is in memory of the Anglo-Dutch and Prussian victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809-10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company and opened in 1817 as a toll bridge. The granite bridge had nine arches, each of 120 feet span, separated by double Grecian-Doric stone columns and was 2,456 feet long, including approaches. Before its opening it was known as 'Strand Bridge'. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a popular place for suicide attempts. Paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic, John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and given to the Metropolitan Board of Works, who removed the toll from it.

From 1884, serious problems were found in Rennie's bridge piers, after scour from the increased river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. By the 1920s the problems had increased, with settlement at pier five necessitating closure of the whole bridge while some heavy superstructure was removed and temporary reinforcements put in place.

London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new structure designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cueral of Rendel Palmer & Tritton. However Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The pairs of spans on each side of the river were supported by beams continuous over their piers, and these were cantilevered out at their ends to support the centre span and the short approach slabs at the banks. The beams were shaped to look as much like arches as...beams can.

They are clad in Portland stone from the South West of England; the stone cleans itself whenever it rains. To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour, each pier was given a number of jacks which can be used to level the structure.

The new crossing was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and completed in 1945. The new bridge was the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during World War II.

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VIEW THE WATERLOO AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE WATERLOO AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE WATERLOO AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE WATERLOO AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE WATERLOO AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Waterloo

London Waterloo station is a central London railway terminus and London Underground complex. The station is one of 18 in Britain owned and operated by Network Rail and is close to the South Bank of the River Thames.

The London and South Western Railway (L&SWR) opened the station on 11 July 1848 as 'Waterloo Bridge Station' (from the nearby crossing over the Thames) when its main line was extended from Nine Elms. The station, designed by William Tite, was raised above marshy ground on a series of arches. The unfulfilled intention was for a through station with services to the City. In 1886, it officially became Waterloo Station, reflecting long-standing common usage, even in some L&SWR timetables.

It is located in the Waterloo district of London, which was itself named after the Battle of Waterloo in which Napoleon was defeated near Brussels.

As the station grew, it became increasingly ramshackle. The original 1848 station became known as the 'Central Station' as other platforms were added. The new platform sets were known by nicknames - the two platforms added for suburban services in 1878 were the 'Cyprus Station', whilst the six built in 1885 for use by trains on the Windsor line became the 'Khartoum Station'. Each of these stations-within-a-station had its own booking office, taxi stand and public entrances from the street, as well as often poorly marked and confusing access to the rest of the station. This complexity and confusion became the butt of jokes by writers and music hall comics for many years in the late 19th century, including Jerome K. Jerome in Three Men in a Boat.

The present buildings were inaugurated in 1922. Part of the station is a Grade II listed heritage building.

With over 91 million passenger entries and exits between April 2010 and March 2011, Waterloo is easily Britain's busiest railway station in terms of passenger usage. The Waterloo complex is one of the busiest passenger terminals in Europe. It has more platforms and a greater floor area than any other station in the UK (though Clapham Junction, just under 4 miles down the line, has the largest number of trains). It is the terminus of a network of railway lines from Surrey, Berkshire, Hampshire, South West England, and the south-western suburbs of London.

Waterloo tube station is, like its namesake, the busiest station on the network and is served by the Bakerloo, Jubilee, Northern and the Waterloo & City lines.

The first underground station at Waterloo was opened on 8 August 1898 by the Waterloo & City Railway (W&CR), a subsidiary of the owners of the main line station, the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR). The W&CR, nicknamed the Drain, achieved in a limited way the L&SWR's original plan of taking its tracks the short distance north-east into the City of London.

On 10 March 1906, the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway (BS&WR, now the Bakerloo line) was opened. On 13 September 1926, the extension of the Hampstead & Highgate line (as the Charing Cross branch of the Northern line was then known) was opened from Embankment to the existing City & South London Railway station Kennington with a new station at Waterloo.

As a subsidiary of the L&SWR and its successor the Southern Railway, the W&CR was not a part of the London Underground system. Following nationalization of the main line railway companies in 1948, it became part of British Railways (later British Rail). Following a period of closure during 1993 when the line was converted to use the four rail electrical system of the London Underground, the ownership of Waterloo & City line was transferred to the Underground on 1 April 1994.

On 24 September 1999, the Jubilee line station was opened as part of the Jubilee Line Extension. The station was temporarily the western terminus of the extension running from Stratford in east London, before the final section to link the extension to the original line was opened between Waterloo and Green Park on 20 November 1999.[9] The Jubilee platforms are at the opposite end of the site from those of the Bakerloo and Northern lines, but the two ends are connected by a 140-metre moving walkway link (one of only two on the Underground - the other gives access to the Waterloo & City line platform at Bank station).

Waterloo station is linked to the South Bank by an elevated walkway. It was once possible to walk directly by elevated walkways and footbridges all the way from the concourse of Waterloo to that of Charing Cross railway station on the north side of the Thames, but the demolition of part of the Waterloo walkway and the reconstruction of the Hungerford Footbridge means that that is no longer possible.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Ackermann’s:   Rudolph Ackermann (20 April 1764 in Stollberg, Saxony – 30 March 1834 in Finchley) was an Anglo-German bookseller, inventor, lithographer, publisher and businessman.
Aldwych:   Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground; formerly a branch line of the Piccadilly Line.
Courtauld Institute of Art:   The Courtauld Institute of Art is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art.
Hole In the Wall:   A local institution, and much the same for years, The Hole In The Wall is actually quite a large hole in a wall, being situated in railway arches in front of Waterloo Station. It has been a watering hole of choice for commuters for many a year.
London Aquarium:   The Sea Life London Aquarium is located on the ground floor of County Hall on the South Bank of the River Thames in central London, near the London Eye. It opened in March 1997 as the London Aquarium and hosts about one million visitors each year. It is the largest aquarium in London.
Necropolis Station:   Waterloo station was originally the terminus for London's daily funeral express to Brookwood Cemetery. Funerary trains bearing coffins (at 2/6 each - singles, naturally) left from the Necropolis Station just outside the main station. The Necropolis Station was totally destroyed during World War II.
Old Vic:   The Old Vic, one of the most reknowned theatres in London, was established in 1818 as the Royal Coburg Theatre.
Peabody Square:   Strict tenancy terms and relatively high rents show that the landlords were not providing for the poorer section of the market and were careful to ensure a required return on their investment.
Shipley's Drawing School:   101 The Strand was an art school from 1750 until 1806.
Temple:   Temple is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster, on the Victoria Embankment. It is the nearest tube station for King's College London and the London School of Economics.
Waterloo:   London Waterloo station is a central London railway terminus and London Underground complex. The station is one of 18 in Britain owned and operated by Network Rail and is close to the South Bank of the River Thames.
Young Vic:   The Young Vic is a theatre on the Cut, located near the South Bank.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Blackmoore Street (1902):   This photo depicts Blackmoor Street which was in the Drury Lane slum, with Clare Court on the left
New Inn Passage (1901):   The corner of Houghton Street and New Inn Passage taken on a 1901 photo just prior to the clearence of the area for the Aldwych-Kingsway improvement scheme.
Strand (1890s):   The Strand in the 1890s
Wych Street:   Wych Street was a street in London, roughly where Australia House now stands on Aldwych. It ran west from the church of St Clement Danes on the Strand to a point towards the southern end of Drury Lane.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Addington Street, SE1 · Adelphi Terrace, WC2N · Alaska Street, SE1 · Aldwych, WC2 · Aldwych, WC2B · Aquinas Street, SE1 · Arundel Street, WC2R · Australia House, WC2B · Barons Place, SE1 · Beaumont Buildings, WC2B · Black Friars Road, SE1 · Blackfriars Road, SE1 · Boundary Row, SE1 · Bow St Covent Garden, WC2E · Bow Street, WC2B · Brad Street, SE1 · Bull Inn Court, WC2R · Burleigh Street, WC2E · Burrows Mews, SE1 · Carting Lane, WC2R · Catherine Street, WC2B · Chicheley Street, SE1 · Clement’s Inn, WC2R · Clements Inn, WC2A · Coin Street, SE1 · Colombo Street, SE1 · Concert Hall Approach, SE1 · Cornwall Road, SE1 · Crown Court, WC2B · Devereux Court, WC2R · Doon Street, SE1 · Drury Lane, WC2B · Embankment, SW6 · Essex Street, WC2R · Exchange Court, WC2R · Exeter Street, WC2E · Exeter Street, WC2R · Exton Street, SE1 · Fountain Court, EC4Y · Gambia Street, SE1 · Garden Court, EC4Y · Golden Jubilee Bridge, SE1 · Golden Jubilee Bridge, SW1A · Golden Jubilee Bridge, WC2N · Gray Street, SE1 · Greet Street, SE1 · Hatfields, SE1 · Houghton Square, SW9 · Houghton Street, WC2A · Isabella Street, SE1 · Jubilee Market Hall Tavistock Court, WC2E · Kean Street, WC2B · Lancaster Place, WC2E · Little Essex Street, WC2R · Maltravers Street, WC2R · Martlett Court, WC2B · Melbourne Place, WC2B · Mepham Street, SE1 · Meymott Street, SE1 · Milford Lane, WC2R · Miller Walk, SE1 · Mitre Road, SE1 · Montreal Place, WC2R · North East Wing Bush House, WC2B · North West Wing Bush House, WC2B · Paris Garden, SE1 · Pontypool Place, SE1 · Rennie Street, SE1 · River Terrace, W6 · Roupell Street, SE1 · Rushworth Street, SE1 · Russell Street, WC2B · Russell Street, WC2E · Samford Street, NW8 · Sandell Street, SE1 · Savoy Court, WC2R · Savoy Hill, WC2R · Savoy Place, WC2N · Savoy Place, WC2R · Savoy Street, WC2E · Savoy Street, WC2R · Savoy Way, WC2R · Short Street, SE1 · Silex Street, SE1 · South East Wing Bush House, WC2B · Southbank Centre Square, SE1 · Stamford, SE1 · Station Approach, SE1 · Strand Lane, WC2R · Strand Underpass, WC2R · Strand, WC2A · Strand, WC2B · Strand, WC2N · Strand, WC2R · Surrey Street, WC2R · Suthwark Bridge Road, SE1 · Sutton Walk, SE1 · Tavistock Street, WC2B · Tavistock Street, WC2E · Temple Pier, WC2R · Temple Place, WC2R · The Australia Centre, WC2B · The Cut, SE1 · The Edmund J. Safra Fountain Court, WC2R · The Foundry, SE1 · The Queen’s Steps, SE1 · The Queen’s Walk, WC2R · The Queen’s Walk, SE1 · The Strand, WC2N · The Strand, WC2R · The Studio, SE1 · Theed Street, SE1 · Tweezer’s Alley, WC2R · Ufford Street, SE1 · Upper Marsh Street, SE1 · Valentine Place, SE1 · Victoria Embankment Gardens, WC2N · Victoria Embankment, SE1 · Victoria Embankment, WC2N · Victoria Embankment, WC2R · Waterloo Bridge, SE1 · Waterloo Bridge, WC2R · Waterloo Road, SE1 · Webber Row, SE1 · Webber Street, SE1 · Wellington Street, WC2E · Wellington Terrace, W2 · Whitehouse Apartments, SE1 · Whittlesey Street, SE1 · Windmill Walk, SE1 · Wootton Street, SE1 · York Road Curve, N1C · York Road, SE1 ·


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Central London, south east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, south east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Central London, north east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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