Chiswick High Road, W4

Road in/near Chiswick, existing until now

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Road · Chiswick · W4 · Contributed by The Underground Map
Chiswick High Road (1900s)

Chiswick High Road is the main road through Chiswick.

Chiswick was a riverside village that got its name, rather unglamorously, from the Old English for ‘cheese farm’ because of an association with an annual cheese fair.

Chiswick was known chiefly for Chiswick House, near its centre, and for 18th- and 19th-century buildings at Chiswick village, referred to as Old Chiswick, and Strand-on-the-Green, respectively at the eastern and western ends of a loop in the Thames.

The parish’s main settlements, lying near its edges, were separated until the 19th century by fields, gardens, and parkland. Forerunners of the existing Chiswick House, which was created by the earl of Burlington (d. 1753) and enlarged by his Cavendish heirs, the dukes of Devonshire, lay between Chiswick village and, to the northwest, Little Sutton and Turnham Green.

The parish had offered a country retreat for Henry VI and later for prelates in the 15th century and for courtiers and the scholars of Westminster from the 16th. By 1706 its ’sweet air and situation’ had brought it many noble seats, although it was after the building of Chiswick House that it became most popular.

Old Chiswick was in 1980 the accepted name of Chiswick village, itself recorded c. 1000 and so perhaps named earlier than Sutton, of which it was once thought to have been an outlying hamlet. From the early 17th to the 19th centuries it was known as Chiswick town or simply as ’the town’. The description, besides emphasizing that it was the main village, perhaps served to distinguish its more elegant part from a cluster of riverside cottages known by 1723-4 as Sluts Hole (in 1865 Fisherman’s Corner).

The settlement apparently grew up immediately east of the church, mentioned in 1181, and away from the river. Church Street there ran northward from the ferry, with a continuation across the open field which lay between the village and the high road to London and Brentford. A little to the east of Church Street and close to the river stood a stone building of c. 1100, the oldest known part of the prebendal manor house (later College House). Presumably that building and its neighbours were reached by a way leading eastward from the ferry along the river bank, the forerunner of Chiswick Mall, although it is not clear how far the medieval road extended.

In the late 16th and early 17th centuries the grandest residents lived on the outskirts of the village: the Russells at Corney House to the west, and the Wardours, the earl of Somerset and their successors in a forerunner of Chiswick House, to the north. What was later Chiswick Mall, however, contained the vicarage house at the bottom of Church Street by 1589-90 besides the old prebendal manor house, enlarged c. 1570 for Westminster school, and a substantial forerunner of Walpole House. They probably stood near other imposing houses, afterwards rebuilt, since in 1706 Bowack noted the interior decoration of some ’very ancient’ dwellings by the river. In Church Street the later Burlington Arms, so called by 1751, existed in the early 16th century.

In 1746 Old Chiswick was still mainly a riverside village, extending eastward along the gravel into Hammersmith but no farther west than Corney House, beyond which lay marshes. Church Street ran a short way inland before turning left to meet Burlington Lane, and from the churchyard a narrow way, in 1752 called Paul’s Walk and later Powell’s Walk, provided a north-westerly short cut to the lane and Chiswick House. Roads radiated from north of the junction of Church Street with Burlington Lane, near the modern Hogarth roundabout: Chiswick Field Lane led straight to the high road, while a forerunner of Hogarth Lane led north-westward to Turnham Green, and Mawson Lane led north-eastward to meet Chiswick Lane by the brewery. Parallel with Chiswick Field Lane, Chiswick Lane led to the Chiswick High Road from half way along the river front, as did a forerunner of British Grove from behind its eastern end, where it joined a lane which ran behind the riverside houses from Church Street into Hammersmith. Away from the river houses lined both sides of Church Street to the point where it met Burlington Lane, a little beyond which they formed Chiswick Square. Buildings also stretched up Chiswick Lane to the corner of Mawson Lane, which ran south-west to Church Street. A few detached houses, one of them soon to be taken by William Hogarth, stood at the Old Chiswick end of the road across the common field to Turnham Green.

The village spread very little between the mid 18th and late 19th centuries. By 1801, with 1,023 inhabitants in 172 houses, it was less populous than Turnham Green, which by 1839 had the greater number of inns. Chiswick Mall contained a few tall trees on a grassy verge between the road and the river in 1827. Its houses retained large back gardens in the 1860s, when they also had their existing plots along the riverside verge. There was still open country, owned by the duke of Devonshire, west of the churchyard, besides the estate of the Prebend manor, including Home field, to the north. More houses stood at the south end of Hogarth Lane, beyond the village, and in Burlington Lane the Cedars, from c. 1863 the home of the landscape painter Henry Dawson (1811-78), faced Corney Lodge at the end of Powell’s Walk. Changes in the village itself arose mainly from industry: the Griffin brewery had expanded beside Chiswick Lane, the Lamb brewery had grown up off Church Street, and the cottages below the church were about to make way for the workshops of Thornycroft & Co., the shipbuilders.

The late 19th century saw the village joined by housing both to the suburbs along the high road and to the western districts of Hammersmith. Its declining importance as a centre of parish life, already foreshadowed by the opening of churches and schools at Turnham Green and Chiswick New Town, was accelerated by its remoteness from the railways and by the rise of new suburbs, with their own services. Old Chiswick thus became a residential backwater, varied by some thriving industry. It lost its most ancient buildings, with the demolition of College House and the reconstruction of the church, but expensive houses were still put up in Chiswick Mall.

On 10 May 1830 the 16th Company of the newly formed Metropolitan Police came into existence when men of Kensington or ’T’ Division started their presence in Chiswick and Brentford. Brentford was the western boundary of the Metropolitan Police District for the next decade.

Although rural in nature Chiswick and Brentford still suffered with traffic congestion. No fewer than 50 stagecoaches passed though the towns daily en route to the southwest.

The construction of the London and South Western Railway brought further development to the area when a line was opened from Waterloo with stations at Chiswick, Kew Bridge, and Brentford. In January 1869 the company opened stations at Bedford Park (now Turnham Green) and Brentford Road (now Gunnersbury). The District line opened in July 1879 with a new station at Acton Green (now Chiswick Park).

Source: Chiswick: Growth | British History Online

The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

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Chiswick: Cheese Farm.

Chiswick is a large suburb of west London. It contains Hogarth's House, the former residence of the 18th century English artist William Hogarth; Chiswick House, a neo-Palladian villa regarded as one of the finest in England; and Fuller's Brewery, London's largest and oldest brewery.

Chiswick is located on a meander of the River Thames which is heavily used for competitive and recreational rowing, and Chiswick itself is home to several clubs. The finishing post for the Boat Race is just downstream of Chiswick Bridge.

The area was historically an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, with an agrarian and fishing economy. Having good communications with London from an early time Chiswick became a popular country retreat, and as part of the suburban growth of London in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the population significantly expanded. It became the Municipal Borough of Brentford and Chiswick in 1932 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

Chiswick was first recorded c.1000 as Ceswican; the name Chiswick is of Old English origin meaning 'Cheese Farm' and originates from the riverside meadows and farms that are thought to have supported an annual cheese fair on Dukes Meadows up until the 18th century.

Chiswick grew up as a fishing village around St Nicholas church on Church Street. The parish included Strand-on-the-Green, Little Sutton and Turnham Green. By the early nineteenth century the fishing industry in and around Chiswick was declining as the growth of industry and the invention of the flush toilet were causing pollution in the river. Fish began to die out and the river became unsuitable as a spawning ground. Locks upstream also made the river impassable by migratory fish such as salmon and shad. From the 18th century onwards the High Road became built up with inns and large houses.

The population of Chiswick grew almost tenfold during the 19th century, reaching 30,000 in 1901, and the area is a mixture of Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian housing. Suburban building began in Gunnersbury in the 1860s and in Bedford Park, on the borders of Chiswick and Acton, in 1875.

The first V-2 rocket to hit London fell on Chiswick on 8 September 1944, killing three people, injuring 22 others and causing extensive damage to surrounding trees and buildings. Six houses were demolished by the rocket and many more suffered damage. There is a memorial where the rocket fell on Staveley Road. There is also a War Memorial at the east end of Turnham Green.

Arts Educational School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 18.
Bedford Park:   Built between 1875 and 1886 in west London, Bedford Park is the first garden suburb and one of the most influential housing developments in Britain.
Belmont Primary School:   Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
Cavendish Primary School:   Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
Chiswick:   Chiswick: Cheese Farm.
Chiswick and Bedford Park Preparatory School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
Chiswick Children’s Centre:   This is a children’s centre.
Chiswick School:   Academy converter (Secondary) which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 18. Admissions policy: Comprehensive (secondary).
Heathfield House School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 11.
Hogarth's House:   Hogarth's House is the former country home of the 18th century English artist William Hogarth in Chiswick. The House now belongs to the London Borough of Hounslow and is open to visitors free of charge.
Orchard House School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Admissions policy: Non-selective.
Riverside Recreation Ground:   
Southfield Primary School:   Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
St Mary’s Catholic Primary School ,Chiswick:   Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
The William Hogarth Primary School:   Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
Turnham Green:   
Wendell Park Primary School:   Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.

Fuller's, Chiswick:   This image depicts workers outside Fuller's Griffin Brewery in Chiswick, about 1900.

A316, W4 · Abinger Road, W4 · Acton Lane, W4 · Acton Park Industrial Estate The Vale, W3 · Acton Park Industrial Estate, W3 · Addison Grove, W4 · Agnes Road, W3 · Airedale Avenue, W4 · Alexandra Gardens, W4 · Alexandra Road, W4 · Alfred Close, W4 · Allied Way, W3 · Alwyn Avenue, W4 · Annandale Road, W4 · Annardale Road, W4 · Anstice Close, W4 · Antrobus Road, W4 · Arlington Gardens, W4 · Arnott Close, W4 · Ashbourne Grove, W4 · Aylmer Road, W12 · Balfern Grove, W4 · Barley Mo Passage, W4 · Barley Mow Centre, W4 · Barley Mow Passage, W4 · Barrowgate Road, W4 · Bath Road, W4 · Beaconsfield Close, W4 · Beaconsfield Road, W4 · Beardsley Way, W4 · Beaumont Road, W4 · Bedford Corner, W4 · Bedford Park Corner, W4 · Bedford Park, W4 · Bedford Road, W4 · Belgrave Court, W4 · Bell Industrial Estate, W4 · Belmont Grove, W4 · Belmont Road, W4 · Belmont Terrace, W4 · Bennett Street, W4 · Berrymede Road, W4 · Beverley Road, W4 · Binns Road, W4 · Birkbeck Grove, W4 · Blandford Road, W4 · Blenheim Road, W4 · Bollo Lane, W4 · Bond Street, W4 · Boston Gardens, W4 · Bourne Place, W4 · Brackley Road, W4 · Brackley Terrace, W4 · Bridge Street, W4 · Bridlington Lane, W4 · Brookfield Road, W4 · Burlington Gardens, W4 · Burlington Lane, W4 · Burlington Road, W4 · Cambridge Road North, W4 · Canham Mews, W3 · Canham Road, W3 · Carelia Court, W4 · Castle Row, W4 · Cedars Road, W4 · Chapter Close, W4 · Chardin Road, W4 · Chaseley Court, W4 · Chiswick Bridge, W4 · Chiswick Common Road, W4 · Chiswick Health Centre Fishers Lane, W4 · Chiswick High Road, W4 · Chiswick Lane South, W4 · Chiswick Lane, W4 · Chiswick Square, W4 · Chiswick Terrace, W4 · Church Path, W4 · Church Street, W4 · Clement Close, W4 · Cleveland Avenue, W4 · Clifton Gardens, W4 · Clovelly Road, W4 · Cobbold Road, W12 · Cobbold Road, W3 · Colonial Drive, W4 · Coombe Road, W4 · Copenhagen Gardens, W4 · Corney Reach Way, W4 · Corney Road, W4 · Cornwall Grove, W4 · Cowley Road, W3 · Cranbrook Road, W4 · Crofton Avenue, W4 · Cunnington Street, W4 · Curricle Street, W3 · Dale Street, W4 · Dartmouth Place, W4 · Devonhurst Place, W4 · Devonshire Mews, W4 · Devonshire Passage, W4 · Devonshire Road, W4 · Devonshire Street, W4 · Disraeli Close, W4 · Dolman Road, W4 · Dolphin Square, W4 · Dorchester Grove, W4 · Dordrecht Road, W3 · Du Cros Road, W3 · Duke Road, W4 · Dukes Avenue, W4 · Dukes Gate, W4 · Eastbury Grove, W4 · Eastman Road, W3 · Eastman Road, W4 · Edensor Gardens, W4 · Edensor Road, W4 · Ellesmere Road, W4 · Elliott Road, W4 · Emlyn Road, W12 · Emlyn Road, W6 · Ennismore Avenue, W4 · Eridge Road, W4 · Esmond Road, W4 · Essex Park Mews, W3 · Essex Place Square, W4 · Essex Place, W4 · Evelyn Road, W4 · Evershed Walk, W4 · Eynham House, W4 · Fairfax Road, W4 · Fairlawn Court, W4 · Fielding Road, W4 · Fishers Lane, W4 · Fitzroy Crescent, W4 · Flanders Mansions, W4 · Flanders Road, W4 · Fletcher Road, W4 · Florence Road, W4 · Foster Road, W4 · Fraser Street, W4 · Fromows Corner, W4 · Gainsborough Road, W4 · Garden Court, W4 · Garth Court, W4 · Garth Road, W4 · Gladstone Road, W4 · Glebe Close, W4 · Glebe Street, W4 · Graham Road, W4 · Grange Road, W4 · Grantham Road, W4 · Great Chertsey Road, W4 · Greenend Road, W4 · Grosvenor Road, W4 · Gunnersbury Avenue, W4 · Gunnersbury Mews, W4 · Gwynne Close, W4 · Hadley Gardens, W4 · Hamilton Road, W4 · Hardwicke Road, W4 · Hartswood Road, W12 · Harvard Road, W4 · Hatfield Road, W4 · Hawkshead Road, W4 · Heathfield Court, W4 · Heathfield Gardens, W4 · Hogarth Business Park, W4 · Hogarth Lane, W4 · Hogarth Roundabout, W4 · Holly Road, W4 · Homefield Road, W4 · Horticultural Place, W4 · Huntingdon Gardens, W4 · Ivy Crescent, W4 · Jeddo Road, W12 · Kings Place, W4 · Kings Yard, E15 · Kingscote Road, W4 · Kingswood Road, W4 · Kinnear Road, W12 · Kirton Close, W4 · Larch Drive, W4 · Larden Road, W3 · Linden Gardens, W4 · London Stile, W4 · Lonsdale Road, W4 · Manor Way, W4 · Marlborough Crescent, W4 · Marlborough Road, W4 · Mawson Lane, W4 · Mayfield Avenue, W4 · Mayfield Road, W12 · Merton Avenue, W4 · Mills Row, W4 · Montgomery Road, W4 · Multi Way, W3 · Namco House Acton Park Industrial Estate, W3 · Netheravon Road South, W4 · Netheravon Road Subway, W4 · Newton Grove, W4 · Old Burlington Lane, W4 · Oxford Court, W4 · Palgrave Road, W12 · Park Road North, W4 · Pavilion Studios The Pavilion, W4 · Paxton Road, W4 · Powell’s Walk, W4 · Power Road Studios, W4 · Power Road, W4 · Prebend Gardens, W4 · Prebend Gardens, W6 · Prince Of Wales Terrace, W4 · Priory Avenue, W4 · Priory Gardens, W4 · Priory Road, W4 · Promenade Approach, W4 · Prospect Place, W4 · Pumping Station Road, W4 · Queen Anne’s Gardens, W4 · Queen Anne’s Grove, W4 · Queen Anns Grove, W4 · Quick Road, W4 · Ramillies Road, W4 · Ravensmede Way, W4 · Reckitt Road, W4 · Reynolds Road, W4 · Riverside Drive, SW13 · Riverside Drive, W4 · Rock Lane, CR3 · Roman Road, W4 · Rothschild Road, W4 · Rugbey Road, W4 · Rupert Road, W4 · Russell Close, W4 · Russell Kerr Close, W4 · Rusthall Avenue, W4 · Saint Albans Avenue, W4 · Salisbury Court, W4 · Saltcoats Road, W4 · Saville Road, W4 · Seymour Road, W4 · Shirley Road, W4 · Short Road, W4 · Silver Crescent · Silver Crescent, W3 · Silver Crescent, W4 · Somerset Road, W4 · South Parade, W4 · Southfield Road, W4 · Speldhurst Road, W4 · St Albans Avenue, W4 · St Georges Road, W4 · St. Albans Avenue, W4 · Stanley Gardens, W3 · Stanley Road, W4 · Station Parade, W4 · Steele Road, W4 · Strand-on-The-Green, W4 · Strauss Road, W4 · Stronsa Road, W12 · Sutherland Road, W4 · Sutton Lane North, W4 · Sutton Road North, W4 · Swainson Road, W3 · Swanscombe Road, W4 · Temple Road, W4 · Thames Crescent, W4 · The Avenue, W4 · The Axis, W4 · The Gatehouse Hogarth Lane, W4 · The Orchard, W4 · The Power House, W4 · The Vale Acton, W3 · The Vale, W3 · Thorney Hedge Road, W4 · Thornton Avenue, W4 · Town Hall Avenue, W4 · Turnham Green Terrace Mews, W4 · Turnham Green Terrace, W4 · Upham Park Road, W4 · Vale Grove, W3 · Valetta Road, W3 · Vanbrugh Road, W4 · Verona Court, W4 · Wadhurst Road, W4 · Walnut Tree Close, SW13 · Warple Mews, W3 · Warple Way, W3 · Wavendon Avenue, W4 · Wellesley Road Bridge, W4 · Wellesley Road, W4 · Welstead Way, W4 · Welstead Way, W6 · Whellock Road, W4 · Whitehall Gardens, W4 · Wilkinson Way, W4 · Wilmington Avenue, W4 · Wilson Walk, W4 · Wilton Avenue, W4 · Windmill Passage, W4 · Windmill Road, W4 · Wood Street, W4 · Woodstock Road, W4 ·
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Chiswick: Growth | British History Online
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John Rocque Map of Ealing and Acton (1762)
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers an area from Greenford in the northwest to Hammersmith in the southeast.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

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