Hatherley Grove, W2

Road in/near Westbourne Green

 HOME  ARTICLE  MAP  FULLSCREEN  STREETS  RECENT  BLOG  HELP  CONTACT 
Click here to log in on Facebook Advanced
MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302017Fullscreen map
Road · Westbourne Green · W2 · Contributed by The Underground Map
JANUARY
1
2000


Hatherley Grove is a street in Paddington.

No addresses have so far been added to Hatherley Grove, W2

This location is in The Underground Map database but, so far, there is no further information about it.

Use the form below to tell us more about this location.



Hatherley Grove, W2 news feed:
Do you come from Hatherley Grove, W2, or know it well? Add your comment here.
Ensure that contributions are kept civilised and are not abusive.
We store your comment's IP address and reserve the right to apply bans where community standards are violated.
Please enter your name:
Enter the information you wish to add to Hatherley Grove, W2:
Please prove that you are a human by typing the text that you see in the picture below.
CAPTCHA Image
Refresh Image
You can completely dispense with this CAPTCHA palava by logging onto our Facebook app.
Contribution type:
 

If you authorise our The Undeground Map Facebook app by clicking the Facebook logo at the top right of the screen, you can add stories, photos and more to this location.
Note that the Undeground Map Facebook app does not post to Facebook on your behalf.
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 14:30 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 14:30 GMT   
IP:
1:1
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Brixton’s Ritzy cinema workers to strike as pay row enters second year
Members of Bectu union to walk out for 24 hours as dispute over wages spreads to several other Picturehouse venuesWorkers at the Ritzy cinema in Brixton, south London, will go on strike again on Saturday as a dispute over pay enters its second year. Members of the Bectu union will walk out for 24 hours. The row has since spread to several other Picturehouse cinemas in London and Brighton. Related: Now showing at the Ritzy: low pay and exploitation | Owen Jones Continue reading...

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/sep/23/brixtons-ritzy-cinema-workers-to-strike-as-pay-row-enters-second-year
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 09:20 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 09:20 GMT   
IP:
1:2
Post by LDNnews: Bayswater
Stoke City vs Chelsea: Premier League prediction, team line-ups and where to watch on TV and online
More misery for Mark Hughes?

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/stoke-city-vs-chelsea-premier-league-prediction-team-lineups-and-where-to-watch-on-tv-and-online-a3641801.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 03:50 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 03:50 GMT   
IP:
1:3
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Four passengers arrested after 'drunken incident' diverts easyJet flight
Four "drunken" passengers have been arrested after they forced an EasyJet plane to divert to Bristol.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/four-passengers-arrested-after-drunken-incident-diverts-easyjet-flight-a3641561.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 00:30 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 00:30 GMT   
IP:
1:4
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
’It’s a catastrophe’: your views on Uber losing its London licence
’It’s a catastrophe’: your views on Uber losing its London licence

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/22/catastrophe-your-views-uber-losing-london-licence
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 20:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 20:00 GMT   
IP:
1:5
Post by LDNnews: Edgware Road
Flies and a build-up of ’sludge’ were found by food hygiene inspectors at this Toby Carvery
An ’infestation’ of flies was found in a Toby Carvery in Bromley by food hygiene inspectors.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15553193.Flies_and_a_build_up_of__sludge__were_found_by_food_hygiene_inspectors_at_this_Toby_Carvery/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 14:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 14:00 GMT   
IP:
1:6
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Uber drivers in London warn of financial ruin for thousands of families
Drivers worry about how they will feed their families and service thousands of pounds of debt racked up to buy carsUber drivers in London have warned thousands of families are facing financial disaster after Transport for London made the shock announcement the company’s minicab operating licence will end in just over a week, unless it appeals.A few voiced satisfaction that a company which they claim had flooded the market with cheap labour, driving earnings below the level of the national minimum wage, could be forced out of the capital. But most were anxious about how they would feed their families and service thousands of pounds of debt racked up to buy cars. Continue reading...

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/sep/22/uber-drivers-london-warn-financial-ruin-thousands-families
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 04:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 04:00 GMT   
IP:
1:7
Post by LDNnews: Bayswater
Man shot dead by police while holding metal pipe was deaf and didn't hear police commands
Police in Oklahoma who shot dead a deaf man holding a metal pipe have claimed they did not hear witnesses' cries of "he can't hear you" before opening fire.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/man-shot-dead-by-police-while-holding-metal-pole-was-deaf-and-didnt-hear-police-commands-a3639951.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 04:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 04:00 GMT   
IP:
1:8
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Dealers handing out business cards to freshers at university halls in Manchester
Drug dealers have been handing out business cards near halls of residence at the University of Manchester.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/dealers-handing-out-business-cards-to-freshers-at-halls-in-manchester-a3640736.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 00:30 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 00:30 GMT   
IP:
1:9
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Gett and Citymapper to launch new taxi-bus for London commuters
Gett and Citymapper to launch new taxi-bus for London commuters

https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2017/sep/21/gett-citymapper-launch-new-taxi-bus-london-commuters
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 20:10 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 20:10 GMT   
IP:
1:10
Post by LDNnews: Edgware Road
Despite being a swimming sensation, Marion Cole faces the prospect of never racing again unless she gets surgery to fix her spine.
Despite being a swimming sensation, Marion Cole faces the prospect of never racing again unless she gets surgery to fix her spine.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15550523.12_year_old_swimming_sensation_needs___45_000_surgery_to_fix_her_spine_or_may_never_race_again/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 12:50 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 12:50 GMT   
IP:
1:11
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Met police chat forum was used to post insults aimed at Gypsies
Met police chat forum was used to post insults aimed at Gypsies

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/sep/21/met-police-chat-forum-was-used-to-post-insults-aimed-at-gypsies
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 03:10 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 03:10 GMT   
IP:
1:12
Post by LDNnews: Bayswater
Cubé, restaurant review: Small but serious sushi bar
For now, Cubé remains a most soothing venue for a drink and a plate, writes David Sexton

https://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/restaurants/cub-restaurant-review-small-but-serious-sushi-bar-a3639171.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 00:50 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 00:50 GMT   
IP:
1:13
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Heathrow airport workers to vote on pre-Christmas strike
Unite members at Heathrow are to vote on whether to take industrial action in the run-up to Christmas in a row over holiday pay. The union says 4,000 members have rejected an offer.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4903798/Heathrow-airport-workers-vote-pre-Christmas-strike.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 00:50 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 00:50 GMT   
IP:
1:14
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Georgia Harrison looks leggy in a little black dress
Georgia Harrison looks leggy in a little black dress

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4904850/Georgia-Harrison-looks-leggy-little-black-dress.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 20 Sep 2017 23:30 GMT   
Expires: 4 Oct 2017 23:30 GMT   
IP:
1:15
Post by LDNnews: Royal Oak
Queensbury raid uncovers 35 men living in house
The three-bedroom house in north west London was found to have "wall-to-wall" mattresses.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-41334906
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 22:30 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 22:30 GMT   
IP:
2:16
Post by LDNnews: Covent Garden
West Park adds to Ealing’s Queen of Suburbs reputation
THE borough of Ealing has had 21 green flags for its parks and open spaces, including Acton Green Common and Acton Park, to retaining its reputation as one of the greenest boroughs in London.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15553853.West_Park_adds_to_Ealing_s_Queen_of_Suburbs_reputation/?ref=rss
VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
 Upload an image
You can add an image to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 Add new information to this location
You can add text to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 
 Log on via Facebook
You can use a Facebook id to add material to this website.

Westbourne Green

The story of the building of a suburb.

Westbourne Green had only a few houses by 1745, mostly south of the point where Harrow Road had a junction with Westbourne Green Lane (also known as Black Lion Lane) running northward from the Uxbridge Road. A footpath later called Bishop’s Walk (eventually Bishop’s Bridge Road) provided a short cut to Paddington Green. The Red Lion, where Harrow Road bridged the Westbourne, and another inn were recorded in 1730. The second inn was probably one called the Jolly Gardeners in 1760 and the Three Jolly Gardeners in 1770, near the Harrow Road junction, where it probably made way for the Spotted Dog.

The early 19th-century village contained five notable residences: Westbourne Place, west of Black Lion Lane at its junction with Harrow Road, and, from south to north on the east side of Harrow Road, Desborough Lodge, Westbourne Farm, Bridge House, and Westbourne Manor House. Bridge House was built c. 1805 by the architect John White, owner of Westbourne Farm.

Westbourne Green had a very refined air in 1795 and was still considered a beautiful rural place in 1820. The Grand Junction canal, passing north of the village between the grounds of Westbourne Farm and Bridge House, was a scenic enhancement, later used to attract expensive building to the area. Although housing was spreading along Black Lion Lane, it had not reached Westbourne Green by 1828, when a house later called Elm Lodge stood north-west of Westbourne Manor House. There was also a short row, later called Belsize Villas, alone to the west on the south side of Harrow Road at Orme’s Green, by 1830. The main addition was at the southern end of the village, opposite Bishop’s Walk, where Pickering Terrace (later part of Porchester Road), backed by a double row called Pickering Place, formed a compact block of cottages amid the fields.

The cutting of the G.W.R. line across the middle of Westbourne Green was begun in 1836, necessitating a slight northward realignment of Harrow Road east of its junction with Black Lion Lane, where a turnpike gate was moved. Since the railway obstructed the Paddington green end of Bishop’s Walk, the footpath was replaced by Bishop’s Road, soon extended westward as Westbourne Grove. (Although no large houses were demolished, the railway passed close to Westbourne Park, from which Lord Hill moved out. By 1840 several new roads were projected, including Westbourne Grove. Houses had been built there by 1842, when the Lock hospital, giving its name to the Lock bridge where Harrow Road crossed the canal, stood opposite Westbourne Manor House to the north. The centre of the area, however, along Harrow Road and on either side of the railway, remained empty.

Housing spread in the 1840s, mainly south of the railway. The eastern end of Bishop’s Road was built up and at first called Westbourne Place, where the publisher George Smith was visited by Charlotte Bronte in 1848 and 1849. Further north, residential growth was curtailed by the G.W.R. depots and sidings. Immediately to the west, where the Paddington Estate straddled the Westbourne, roads were laid out, with bridges over the railway to link them with Harrow Road. Holy Trinity church was finished in 1846 and Orsett Terrace, Gloucester Crescent (later the northernmost part of Gloucester Terrace), and Porchester Square had been planned by 1851. No. 37 Gloucester Gardens, Bishop’s Road, was the London home of the architect Decimus Burton by 1855. Most of the area between Bishop’s Road and the railway had been filled by 1855, except the site of Penny’s House, which was to be taken in 1871 for Royal Oak station.

A builder, William Scantlebury, erected much of the neighbourhood around Orsett Terrace and Gloucester Crescent, where he took leases in 1849-50 and 1852 respectively. John Scantlebury of Porchester Terrace North built part of Porchester Square, where many plots were subleased by George Wyatt between 1853 and 1855.

Farther west building had already begun for William Kinnaird Jenkins, a lawyer who also acquired part of the Ladbroke estate from W. H. Jenkins and was responsible for laying out Kensal New Town. Houses were planned for W. K. Jenkins along both sides of Westbourne Grove, west of Pickering Place, in 1838 and along an extension of Westbourne Grove in 1840. They were detached villas, like those to be built for him in Newton Road in 1846, when he also had plans for Hereford Road. More land in Hereford Road was leased out by the Paddington Estate between 1853 and 1855, much of it for terraces by J. P. Waterson, a Bayswater builder, who assigned his interest in several sites to John Wicking Phillips. To the north, Westbourne Park and its grounds made way for large semidetached villas in Westbourne Park Road and, beside the railway, Westbourne Park Villas. No. 16 Westbourne Park Villas from 1863 to 1867 was the intermittent home of Thomas Hardy, who also lived briefly at no. 4 Celbridge Place (later Porchester Road) and in Newton Road. Fields survived between Westbourne Park Road and Newton Road in 1851 but had been covered with modest terraces by 1855, when St. Stephen’s church was being built.

Between the railway and the canal, the pace of building and the social pattern were more varied. The eastern part, where Delamere Terrace lined the canal and Warwick Crescent overlooked the pool, was begun as an extension of Little Venice. Leases for 13 houses in Westbourne Terrace Road were taken in 1847 by G. L. Taylor, architect of some of the grandest houses in Tyburnia and Maida Vale, who also built in Blomfield Terrace, along Harrow Road. Other lessees included William Buddle, for 19 houses in Blomfield Street (later Villas) and Delamere Terrace in 1851 and 12 in Warwick Crescent, where plots were assigned to him by G. L. Taylor in 1852. Early residents included Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s sister Arabel Barrett in Delamere Terrace; in order to be near her Robert Browning moved from lodgings at no. 1 Chichester Road and made his English home at no. 19 Warwick Crescent from 1862 until 1887.

Farther west, beyond Ranelagh (from 1938 Lord Hill’s) Road, building was slightly delayed by the survival until after 1855 of Desborough Lodge and Westbourne Farm. Brindley Street, Alfred Road, and their neighbours already formed densely packed terraces west of the Lock Bridge and Harrow Road. By 1861 Desborough Lodge and Westbourne Farm had made way for Clarendon, Woodchester and Cirencester Streets, whose small houses resembled those around Brindley Street rather than the stately terraces to the east.

North of the canal, the workhouse was built next to the Lock in 1846-7. Building, although not the imposing crescent planned in 1847, stretched from there along the south side of Harrow Road to Woodfield Road at Orme’s Green by 1855.

The 1860s saw housing, which had ended in 1855 at St. Stephen’s Church and Hereford Road, spread to the Kensington boundary.

North of the canal the site of Westbourne Manor House was built over from 1867 and Amberley Road with its timber wharves was built along the canal bank. The whole of Westbourne Green thus came to be built up.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Bayswater:   Bayswater is one of London's most cosmopolitan areas - also one of London's biggest concentration of hotels.
Bridge House:   Canal side house in Westbourne Park
Desborough Lodge:   Desborough Lodge was a house which was one of five grand houses in the village of Westbourne Green.
Duke of Cornwall (The Ledbury):   The Duke of Cornwall pub morphed into the uber-trendy "The Ledbury" restaurant.
Queen's Cinema:   This cinema was situated at the top of Queensway, on the corner of Bishop's Bridge Road.
Red Lion Bridge:   Harrow Road once spanned the River Westbourne at this point.
River Westbourne:   The Westbourne is one of the lost rivers of London.
Royal Oak:   Royal Oak is a station on the Hammersmith and City Line, between Westbourne Park and Paddington stations, and is the least used station on the Hammersmith and City line.
Spotted Dog:   The Spotted Dog public house was one of the earliest buildings in Westbourne Green.
Westbourne Farm:   An old farm with a theatrical connection.
Westbourne Green:   The story of the building of a suburb.
Westbourne House:   Two hundred years ago, the biggest house hereabouts...
Westbourne Manor:   The Manor of Westbourne


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Westbourne Lodge:   Westbourne Lodge appeared in one of the earliest photographs in London.
Whiteley's:   Whiteley’s, pictured here in the 1920s, was designated a Grade II Listed Building in 1970.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Admiral Walk, W9 · Aldsworth Close, W9 · Alexander Mews, W2 · Alexander Street, W2 · Alfred Road, W2 · Artesian Road, W2 · Blomfield Villas, W2 · Bourne Terrace, W2 · Bridstow Place, W2 · Burdett Mews, W2 · Caradoc Close, W2 · Caroline Place, W2 · Celbridge Mews, W2 · Cervantes Court, W2 · Chepstow Place, W2 · Chepstow Road, W2 · Cirencester Street, W2 · Courtnell Street, W2 · Dudley Street, W2 · Evesham House, W2 · Garway Road, W2 · Gaydon House, W2 · Gloucester Gardens, W2 · Great Western Road, W2 · Hatherley Grove, W2 · Hereford Road, W2 · Hunter Lodge, W9 · Ilchester Gardens, W2 · Inverness Mews, E16 · Inverness Mews, W2 · Inverness Place, W2 · Inverness Terrace, W2 · Kensington Gardens Square, W2 · Kildare Terrace, W2 · Ledbury Road, W2 · Leinster Square, W2 · Lister Lodge, W9 · Lord Hills Road, W2 · Marylebone Flyover, W2 · Monmouth Road, W2 · Moorhouse Road, W2 · Moscow Place, W2 · Moscow Road, W2 · Newton Road, W2 · Northumberland Place, W2 · Olympia Mews, W2 · Orsett Mews, W2 · Paddington Green, W2 · Pembroke House, W2 · Pickering Mews, W2 · Poplar Place, W2 · Porchester Gardens Mews, W2 · Porchester Gardens, W2 · Porchester Road, W2 · Porchester Square, W2 · Porchester Terrace North, W2 · Princes Mews, W2 · Princes Square, W2 · Princess Court, W2 · Queens Court, W2 · Queens Mews, W2 · Queensborough Passage, W2 · Queensborough Studios, W2 · Queensborough Terrace, W2 · Ranelagh Bridge, W2 · Redan House, W2 · Redan Place, W2 · Rede Place, W2 · Rowington Close, W2 · Salem Road, W2 · Senior Street, W2 · Shrewsbury Road, W2 · St Petersburgh Mews, W2 · St Stephens Gardens, W2 · St Stephens Mews, W2 · St Stephen’s Gardens, W2 · Sutherland Place, W2 · Talbot Road, W2 · The Whiteleys Centre, W2 · Torquay Street, W2 · Westbourne Gardens, W2 · Westbourne Grove Terrace, W2 · Westbourne Grove, W2 · Westbourne Park Road, W2 · Westbourne Park Villas, W2 · Westway, W2 · Whiteleys Centre, W2 · Windsor Court, UB5 · Windsor Court, W2 · Woodchester Square, W2 ·


USING THIS MATERIAL IN OTHER ARTICLES


COMMENTS

Print-friendly version of this page

What is Hatherley Grove, W2 like as a place to live?

Data from placeilive.com/

Links

Westbourne Park
Facebook Page
Royal Oak
Facebook Page
Bayswater
Facebook Page
Notting Hill Gate
Facebook Page
Queensway
Facebook Page
The Notting Hill & North Kensington Photo Archive
Facebook group
Born in W10
Facebook group
Hidden London
Histor­ically inclined look at the capital’s obscure attractions
Londonist
All-encompassing website
British History Online
Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.
Time Out
Listings magazine

Maps


Inner West London (1932) FREE DOWNLOAD
1930s map covering East Acton, Holland Park, Kensington, Notting Hill, Olympia, Shepherds Bush and Westbourne Park,
George Philip & Son, Ltd./London Geographical Society, 1932

Central London, north west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
1 


COPYRIGHT TERMS:
Unless a source is explicitedly stated, text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Articles may be a remixes of various Wikipedia articles plus work by the website authors - original Wikipedia source can generally be accessed under the same name as the main title. This does not affect its Creative Commons attribution.

Maps upon this website are in the public domain because they are mechanical scans of public domain originals, or – from the available evidence – are so similar to such a scan or photocopy that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in public domain for the following reason:
Public domain Maps used are in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights.

This tag is designed for use where there may be a need to assert that any enhancements (eg brightness, contrast, colour-matching, sharpening) are in themselves insufficiently creative to generate a new copyright. It can be used where it is unknown whether any enhancements have been made, as well as when the enhancements are clear but insufficient. For usage, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.