Holland Park Avenue, W11

Road in/near Holland Park

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Road · Holland Park · W11 · Contributed by The Underground Map
August
7
2015
Holland Park Avenue c.1900, looking west. Old postcard, reproduced courtesy of RBKC.
Credit: Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea

Holland Park Avenue is one of London’s most ancient thoroughfares.

No addresses have so far been added to Holland Park Avenue, W11

The Romans made Holland Park Avenue their main road into London from Silchester and the west, but it probably existed as an ancient British trackway long before that. In Roman times it ran through a densely forested area, part of the huge forest that was later known as the Forest of Middlesex (which according to a 12th century description was full of red and fallow deer, boars and wild bulls).

After the Romans left, the road appears to have deteriorated to such an extent that the then smaller parallel road to the south that is now High Street Kensington took over as the main way into London for travellers from the West of England. But the old road continued to be used by travellers from Oxford and Uxbridge, and until the 19th century it was known as the Uxbridge Road, or sometimes simply the “North Highway”.

From the Middle Ages onwards, the forest was gradually cleared, to be replaced by arable farmland and meadows. Gravel pits began to be worked at what is now Notting Hill Gate, and a straggling village developed along that part of the road at a fairly early stage.

The Holland Park Avenue section of the road remained in open country until the early 1800s. The grounds of Holland House ran right down to the road on the south side. Almost the only buildings were a large house just west of Princedale Road which was the “ handsome pleasant seat” of the owner of the Norland estate; a farm on the site of the Mitre pub, called Notting Hill Farm; and a hostelry called the Plough (a name appropriately indicative of the rural nature of the area) more or less opposite the end of Campden Hill Road (which was then known as Plough Lane).

The road was known for its robbers and footpads. In the 14th century, one Thomas de Holland was robbed of a cart and its goods at “Knottynghull”, and there are a number of other accounts of robberies down to the 18th century. For instance, in 1751, at the level of Holland Park, two gentleman were robbed of their watches and money by men in black masks – 18th century hoodies – “who swore a lot and appeared to be in liquor”. In 1767, it was decided to install lights and appoint watchmen along the Bayswater Road because it was “infested in the Nighte-time with Robbers and other wicked and ill-disposed persons, and Robberies, Outrages and Violences are committed thereon”, but that no doubt that merely caused the robbers to move west to prey on travellers on the unlighted and unwatched section near Holland Park.

The road was often in poor condition, and this was what led to the establishment of the turnpike gate that became known as Notting Hill Gate, so that tolls could be raised from travellers to keep the road in repair. The private Act of Parliament passed in 1714 to authorise the collection of tolls on the road between Uxbridge and Tyburn (Marble Arch) noted that the road “by reason of the many heavy carriages frequently passing, has become very ruinous and many parts are so bad that the same are very dangerous to such persons as have occasion to travel through the road and in the winter season the road is almost impassable for horses, coaches, chariots, carts and other carriages”. Notting Hill Gate was one of several turnpikes subsequently set up on the road from Uxbridge; it was finally removed in the 1860s.

Around the mid-18th century, 170 acres of land to the north of Holland Park Avenue, between Portland Road and Ladbroke Terrace, were acquired by Richard Ladbroke, a member of a rich family of bankers (the land on the south side of Holland Park Avenue belonged to Lord Holland of Holland House). Richard Ladbroke and his descendants did nothing with the land – beyond enjoying its revenues – until 1819, when the estate was inherited by his grandson, James Weller Ladbroke. The latter determined on developing part of the estate to meet the increasing demand for housing within easy reach of London.

It was natural that he should begin with the frontage of the Uxbridge Road, the only real road in the neighbourhood. In 1823 he signed two agreements with developers, one covering the part of the northern side of the road to the west of Notting Hill Farm, and one the part of the road to the east. Under these agreements, the developers undertook to build a certain number of houses. In exchange, once the houses were built, Weller Ladbroke granted the developers 99-year leases of the new houses, which they could then sub-let for income, paying James Weller Ladbroke a rising ground rent, so that both parties were in profit.

In 1824, the first houses were erected on the north side between Ladbroke Terrace and Ladbroke Grove, and in the next 10 years building extended to Clarendon Road, the farm being replaced by an inn. Almost all these houses are still standing.

In the mid 1830s the building boom collapsed as it became clear that the area was still too far west of London to be attractive. All activity on the Ladbroke estate stopped and the houses on the Uxbridge Road, along with a few built at the same time on the other side of the road and at the southern end of Ladbroke Grove and Ladbroke Terrace, remained for the next decade surrounded by countryside. But in the 1840s, demand for housing revived, and over the next three decades the rest of the Ladbroke estate was completed. The few gaps that remained in Holland Park Avenue were filled in. Finally, in 1900, Boyne House made way for the Holland Park Station on the new “Central London Railway”.

As was typical of the period, each separate terrace of houses was given its own name and numbering system. Thus, the houses between Ladbroke Terrace and Ladbroke Grove and the first 12 houses west of the Mitre were part of “Notting Hill Terrace” (and Campden Hill Square, which was built by the same developer around the same time, was called Notting Hill Square); then came Boyne Terrace and Boyne House where the Underground Station now is; and finally between the station and Clarendon Road there was Grove Terrace. It was not until 1895 that this part of the Uxbridge Road was renamed Holland Park Avenue and the present street numbering system introduced.

Source: Ladbroke Association



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VIEW THE HOLLAND PARK AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLLAND PARK AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLLAND PARK AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLLAND PARK AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLLAND PARK AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Notting Hill

Notting Hill: A place whose fortunes have come, gone and come again...

Notting Hill is a cosmopolitan district known as the location for the annual Notting Hill Carnival, and for being home to the Portobello Road Market.

The word Notting might originate from a Saxon called Cnotta with the =ing part indicating "the place inhibited by the people of" - i.e. where Cnotta’s tribe lived. There was a farm called variously "Knotting-Bernes,", "Knutting-Barnes" or "Nutting-barns" and this name was transferred to the hill above it.

The area remained rural until the westward expansion of London reached Bayswater in the early 19th century. The main landowner in Notting Hill was the Ladbroke family, and from the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to undertake the development of the Ladbroke Estate. Working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital (although the development did not get seriously under way until the 1840s). Many of these streets bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the main north-south axis of the area, and Ladbroke Square, the largest private garden square in London.

The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, and other roads (notably Kensington Park Road and Kensington Park Gardens) are reminders of this. The local telephone prefix 7727 (originally 727) is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk.

The reputation of the district altered over the course of the 20th century. As middle class households ceased to employ servants, the large Notting Hill houses lost their market and were increasingly split into multiple occupation.

For much of the 20th century the large houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Caribbean immigrants were drawn to the area in the 1950s, partly because of the cheap rents, but were exploited by slum landlords like Peter Rachman, and also became the target of white racist Teddy Boys in the 1958 Notting Hill race riots.

Notting Hill was slowly gentrified from the 1980s onwards now has a contemporary reputation as an affluent and fashionable area; known for attractive terraces of large Victorian townhouses, and high-end shopping and restaurants (particularly around Westbourne Grove and Clarendon Cross).

A Daily Telegraph article in 2004 used the phrase the ’Notting Hill Set’ to refer to a group of emerging Conservative politicians, such as David Cameron and George Osborne, who were once based in Notting Hill.

Since it was first developed in the 1830s, Notting Hill has had an association with artists and ’alternative’ culture.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Earl of Zetland:   A pub in the Potteries
Holland Park:   Holland Park is a district, an underground station (and indeed a park) in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Kensington (Olympia):   Kensington (Olympia) station in West London is managed and served by London Overground and also served by London Underground.
St John’s Hill:   St John’s Hill is the highest point in the area.
St John’s, Notting Hill:   St John’s Notting Hill is a Victorian Anglican church built in 1845 in Lansdowne Crescent, Notting Hill.
The Crown:   The Crown was situated at 57 Princedale Road.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Abbotsbury Close, W14 · Abbotsbury Road, W14 · Abbotsbury Road, W8 · Addison Avenue, W11 · Addison Bridge Place, W14 · Addison Crescent, W14 · Addison Gardens, W14 · Addison Place, W11 · Addison Road, W14 · Anley Road, W14 · Applegarth Road, W14 · Argyll Mansions, W14 · Augustine Road, W14 · Avonmore Road, W14 · Aynhoe Road, W14 · Barons Keep, W14 · Beaconsfield Terrace Road, W14 · Beaconsfield Terrace, W14 · Beckford Close, W14 · Berghem Mews, W14 · Bishop King’s Road, W14 · Blythe Mews, W14 · Blythe Road, W14 · Bolingbroke Road, W14 · Boyne Terrace Mews, W11 · Brook Green, W14 · Caithness Road, W14 · Carlton Mansions, W14 · Ceylon Road, W14 · Charecroft Way, W12 · Charecroft Way, W14 · Clarendon Cross, W11 · Clarendon Road, W11 · Clarendon Works, W11 · Dewhurst Road, W14 · Dunsany Road, W14 · Earsby Street, W14 · Elsham Road, W14 · Fairfax Place, W14 · Farley Court, W14 · Faroe Road, W14 · Fenelon Place, W14 · Fitz-George Avenue, W14 · Fitz-James Avenue, W14 · Fitzjames Avenue, W14 · Girdlers Road, W14 · Gratton Road, W14 · Hammersmith Road, W14 · Hansard Mews, W12 · Hansard Mews, W14 · Hazlitt Mews, W14 · Hazlitt Road, W14 · Hippodrome Mews, W11 · Hippodrome Place, W11 · Hofland Road, W14 · Holland Park Gardens, W14 · Holland Park Ilchester Place, W8 · Holland Park Mews, W11 · Holland Park Road, W14 · Holland Park Road, W14 · Holland Park Roundabout, W12 · Holland Park Terrace, W11 · Holland Park, W11 · Holland Park, W11 · Holland Park, W11 · Holland Park, W8 · Holland Road, E13 · Holland Road, W14 · Holland Villas Road, W14 · Ilchester Place, W14 · Ilchester Place, W8 · Kenley Street, W11 · Kenley Walk, W11 · Kensington High Street, W14 · Kenton Court, W14 · Lakeside Road, W14 · Lansdowne Mews, W11 · Lansdowne Rise, W11 · Lansdowne Road, W11 · Lansdowne Walk, W11 · Lisgar Terrace, W14 · Lower Addison Gardens, W14 · Maclise Road, W14 · Mary Place, W11 · Masbro Road, W14 · Matheson Road, W14 · Melbury Court, W14 · Melbury Court, W8 · Melbury Road, W14 · Milson Road, W14 · Minford Gardens, W14 · Munden Street, W14 · Napier Place, W14 · Napier Road, W14 · Netherwood Road, W14 · Norland Place, W11 · Norland Square, W11 · North End Crescent, W14 · North End Cresent, W14 · North End Parade, W14 · Oakwood Court, W14 · Olympia Way, W14 · Oxford Gate, W14 · Park Close, W14 · Pembroke Road, W8 · Penzance Place, W11 · Portland Gate, SW7 · Portland Road, W11 · Pottery Lane, W11 · Prince?s Yard, W11 · Princedale Road, W11 · Princes Place, W11 · Queensdale Road, W11 · Queensdale Walk, W11 · Radnor Terrace, W14 · Redan Street, W14 · Richmond Court, W14 · Richmond Way, W14 · Rockley Road, W14 · Russell Gardens Mews, W14 · Russell Gardens, W14 · Sinclair Gardens, W14 · Sinclair Road, W14 · Somerset Square, W14 · Souldern Road, W14 · Southcombe Street, W14 · Springvale Terrace, W14 · St John’s Mews, W11 · St Mary Abbots Terrace, W14 · St. Johns Gardens, W11 · St. John’s Gardens, W11 · Stable Yard Ilchester Place, W8 · Stanwick Road, W14 · Sterndale Road, W14 · Stonor Road, W14 · Strangways Terrace, W14 · Upper Addison Gardens, W14 · Vernon Street, W14 · Warwick Gardens, W14 · Warwick Road, W14 · Welbeck Court, W14 · Westwick Gardens, W14 · Windsor Way, W14 · Woodsford Square, W14 ·


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Maps


Inner West London (1932) FREE DOWNLOAD
1930s map covering East Acton, Holland Park, Kensington, Notting Hill, Olympia, Shepherds Bush and Westbourne Park,
George Philip & Son, Ltd./London Geographical Society, 1932

Central London, north west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Central London, south west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, south west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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