The Foundling Hospital in London was founded in 1741 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram.
It was a children's home established for the education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children. The word 'hospital' was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply indicating the institution's hospitality to those less fortunate.
The first children were admitted to the Foundling Hospital on 25 March 1741, into a temporary house located in Hatton Garden. At first, no questions were asked about child or parent, but a distinguishing token was put on each child by the parent. These were often marked coins, trinkets, pieces of cotton or ribbon, verses written on scraps of paper. Clothes, if any, were carefully recorded. One entry in the record reads, Paper on the breast, clout on the head. The applications became too numerous, and a system of balloting with red, white and black balls was adopted. Children were seldom taken after they were twelve months old.
On reception, children were sent to wet nurses in the countryside, where they stayed until they were about four or five years old. At sixteen girls were generally apprenticed as servants for four years; at fourteen, boys were apprenticed into variety of occupations, typically for seven years. There was a small benevolent fund for adults.
In September 1742, the stone of the new Hospital was laid in the area known as Bloomsbury, lying north of Great Ormond Street and west of Gray's Inn Lane. The Hospital was designed by Theodore Jacobsen as a plain brick building with two wings and a chapel, built around an open courtyard. The western wing was finished in October 1745. An eastern wing was added in 1752 'in order that the girls might be kept separate from the boys'. The new Hospital was described as 'the most imposing single monument erected by eighteenth century benevolence' and became London's most popular charity.
In 1756, the House of Commons resolved that all children offered should be received, that local receiving places should be appointed all over the country, and that the funds should be publicly guaranteed. A basket was accordingly hung outside the hospital; the maximum age for admission was raised from two months to twelve, and a flood of children poured in from country workhouses. In less than four years 14,934 children were presented, and a vile trade grew up among vagrants, who sometimes became known as Coram Men, of promising to carry children from the country to the hospital, an undertaking which they often did not perform or performed with great cruelty. Of these 15,000, only 4,400 survived to be apprenticed out. The total expense was about £500,000, which alarmed the House of Commons. After throwing out a bill which proposed to raise the necessary funds by fees from a general system of parochial registration, they came to the conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued. The hospital, being thus thrown on its own resources, adopted a system of receiving children only with considerable sums (e.g., £100), which sometimes led to the children being reclaimed by the parent.
This practice was finally stopped in 1801; and it henceforth became a fundamental rule that no money was to be received. The committee of inquiry had to be satisfied of the previous good character and present necessity of the mother, and that the father of the child had deserted both mother and child, and that the reception of the child would probably replace the mother in the course of virtue and in the way of an honest livelihood. At that time, illegitimacy carried deep stigma, especially for the mother but also for the child. All the children at the Foundling Hospital were those of unmarried women, and they were all first children of their mothers. The principle was in fact that laid down by Henry Fielding in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling: Too true I am afraid it is that many women have become abandoned and have sunk to the last degree of vice
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Added: 10 Dec 2018 05:40 GMT
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Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area.
The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is the 1086 Domesday Book, which records that the area had vineyards and 'wood for 100 pigs'. But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.
The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called Lomesbury which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square is now, though this piece of folk etymology is now discredited.
At the end of the 14th century Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century, with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown, and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece.
Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.
The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848.
The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012.
LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Aldwych: Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground; formerly a branch line of the Piccadilly Line. Argyle Primary School: Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Birkbeck College: Higher education institutions Blessed Sacrament RC Primary School: Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Bloomsbury: Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area. British Library: The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom. Its building at St Pancras was the largest public building constructed in the UK in the 20th century. British Museum: Founded in 1753, the British Museum’s remarkable collection spans over two million years of human history. CATS College London: Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 15 and 24. Children’s Hospital School at Gt Ormond Street and UCH: Foundation special school which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 16. City Lit: Further education (16 plus) which accepts students between the ages of 16 and 99. Copenhagen Primary School: Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Courtauld Institute of Art: The Courtauld Institute of Art is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art. Courtauld Institute of Art: Higher education institutions Covent Garden: From fruit and veg to Froo Tan Vetch Ecole Jeannine Manuel: Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 18. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson School: Community school (Secondary) which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 16. Admissions policy: Comprehensive (secondary).
Garrick Yard: Garrick Yard, together with the more familiar Garrick Street to the northeast of here, both took their names from the Garrick Club which commemorates the famous 18th century actor, David Garrick. Holborn: Holborn is both an area and also the name of the area's principal street, known as High Holborn between St. Giles's High Street and Gray's Inn Road and then Holborn Viaduct between Holborn Circus and Newgate Street. Horse Hospital : Built as stabling for cabby’s sick horses, The Horse Hospital is now a unique Grade II listed arts venue in Bloomsbury WC1 Institute of Education: Higher education institutions Kate Greenaway Nursery School and Children’s Centre: Local authority nursery school (Nursery) which accepts students between the ages of 2 and 5. King's Cross St Pancras: King's Cross St Pancras is the biggest interchange station on the London Underground, serving six lines on four pairs of tracks as well as two National Rail stations. Kings Cross Academy: Academy sponsor led (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Admissions policy: Non-selective.
Lincoln’s Inn Fields: Lisle’s Tennis Court: Lisle’s Tennis Court was a building off Portugal Street in Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London. London School of Economics and Political Science: Higher education institutions London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine: Higher education institutions Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) is a drama school in London, England. It is one of the oldest drama schools in the United Kingdom, founded in 1904 by Herbert Beerbohm Tree. Royal Opera House: The foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1660, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies (The Duke's Company) in London. Russell Square: Russell Square station, now on London's Piccadully Line, was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. The building was designed by Leslie Green and is a Grade II listed building. St Andrew’s (Barnsbury) Church of England Primary School: Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 11. St Clement Danes CofE Primary School: Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. St George the Martyr Church of England Primary School: Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. St Giles: St Giles is a district of London, at the southern tip of the London Borough of Camden. St Josephs Catholic Primary School: Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. St Pancras: St Pancras railway station, celebrated for its architecture, is built on the site of the St Pancras suburb of London. Temple: Temple is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster, on the Victoria Embankment. It is the nearest tube station for King's College London and the London School of Economics. The Mary Ward Centre (AE Centre): Further education (16 plus) which accepts students between the ages of 16 and 99. The Royal Ballet School: Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 19. Thomas Coram Centre: Local authority nursery school (Nursery) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 5. University College London: University College London (UCL) is a public research university and a constituent college of the federal University of London. University College London: Higher education institutions University of London: Higher education institutions University of the Arts London: Higher education institutions Vittoria Primary School: Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Winton Primary School: Community school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 2 and 11.
PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Blackmoore Street (1902): This photo depicts Blackmoor Street which was in the Drury Lane slum, with Clare Court on the left Houghton Street (1906): A greengrocer's on the corner of Houghton Street and Clare Market (behind The Strand) in 1906 just before demolition. New Inn Passage (1901): The corner of Houghton Street and New Inn Passage taken on a 1901 photo just prior to the clearence of the area for the Aldwych-Kingsway improvement scheme. Strand (1890s): The Strand in the 1890s The 'Royal Blue' horse omnibus outside 5 Euston Road (1912): The bus carries route information and an advert for Selfridge's. The shops behind, including Boots the Chemist, Stewart & Wright's Cocoa Rooms and the Northumberland Hotel, are covered in advertisements. Wild Street (1902): Wild Street, in the Covent Garden area, was on the edge of the Kingsway improvements which would utterly transform the area in the following years. Wych Street: Wych Street was a street in London, roughly where Australia House now stands on Aldwych. It ran west from the church of St Clement Danes on the Strand to a point towards the southern end of Drury Lane.
NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches.
Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés.
Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death.
The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
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