Oxford Street, W1C

Road in/near Marylebone, existing until now

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Road · Marylebone · W1C · Contributed by The Underground Map
October
24
2017



Oxford Street is Europe’s busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, and as of 2012 had approximately 300 shops.



Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum (near Silchester, Hampshire) with Camulodunum (now Colchester) via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city.

Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road (after the River Tyburn that ran just to the south of it, and now flows underneath it), Uxbridge Road (this name is still used for the portion of the London-Oxford road between Shepherds Bush and Uxbridge), Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas’ "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described partly as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.

Despite being a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road. It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators drunkenly jeered at prisoners as they carted along the road, and could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street.

The street began to be redeveloped in the 18th century after many of the surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, local gardener Thomas Huddle began to build property on the north side. John Rocque’s Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property thereafter. Buildings began to be erected on the corner of Oxford Street and Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development along the street occurred between 1763 and 1793. The Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.

The street became popular with entertainers including bear-baiters, theatres and public houses. However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and St Giles, then a notorious rookery, or slum. The gallows were removed in 1783, and by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The Princess’s Theatre opened in 1840, and is now the site of Oxford Walk shopping area.

Oxford Street changed character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers, cobblers and furniture stores began to appear on the street, and were later expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors began to sell tourist souvenirs on the street during this time. A plan of Oxford Street in Tallis’s London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that almost all the street, save for the far western end, was primarily retail. John Lewis started in 1864 as a small shop at No. 132, while Selfridges opened on 15 March 1909 at No. 400. Most of the southern side of Oxford Street west of Davies Street was completely rebuilt between 1865 and 1890, allowing a more uniform freehold ownership. By the 1930s, the street was almost entirely retail, a position that remains today.

Oxford Street suffered considerable bombing during the Second World War. During the night and early hours of 17 to 18 September 1940, 268 Heinkel He 111 and Dornier Do 17 bombers targeted the West End, particularly Oxford Street. Many buildings were damaged, either from a direct hit or subsequent fires, including four department stores: John Lewis, Selfridges, Bourne & Hollingsworth and Peter Robinson.

Every Christmas, Oxford Street is decorated with festive lights. The tradition of Christmas lights began in 1959, five years after the neighbouring Regent Street. There were no light displays in 1976 or 1977 due to economic recession, but the lights returned in 1978 when Oxford Street organised a laser display, and they have been there every year since.

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VIEW THE MARYLEBONE AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARYLEBONE AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARYLEBONE AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARYLEBONE AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARYLEBONE AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Marylebone

Marylebone - so good they named it once but pronounced it seven different ways.

Marylebone is an area in the City of Westminster North of Oxford Street and South of Regents Park. Edgware Road forms the Western boundary. Portland Place forms the eastern boundary with the area known as Fitzrovia.

Marylebone gets its name from a church, called St Mary's, that was built on the bank of a small stream or bourne called the Tyburn. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the bourne, which over time became shortened to its present form Marylebone.

Today the area is mostly residential with a stylish High Street. It is also notable for its Arab population on its far western border around Edgware Road.

Marylebone station, opened in 1899, is the youngest of London's mainline terminal stations, and also one of the smallest, having opened with half the number of platforms originally planned.

Originally the London terminus of the ill-fated Great Central Main Line, it now serves as the terminus of the Chiltern Main Line route.

The underground station is served by the Bakerloo Line, opening on 27 March 1907 by the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway under the name Great Central (following a change from the originally-intended name Lisson Grove). It was renamed Marylebone in 1917.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Bond Street:   Where the rich go shopping
Churchill Hotel:   The Hyatt Regency London - The Churchill is a five star hotel located on Portman Square.
Home House:   Home House is a Georgian town house at 20 Portman Square.
Hyett's hand-drawn 1807 map:   William Hyett produced an amazingly accurate map of the London countryside in 1807, using just pen and paper.
Marylebone:   Marylebone - so good they named it once but pronounced it seven different ways.
Mayfair:   Mayfair (originally called The May Fair) is an area of central London, by the east edge of Hyde Park. Mayfair boasts some of the capital's most exclusive property of all types.
Montagu House:   Montagu House at 22 Portman Square was a historic London house.
On This Day in London: 4 November:   On This Day in London: 4 November
Orchard Court:   Orchard Court is an apartment block off of Portman Square in London. Known in French as Le Verger, it was used during the Second World War as the London base of F section of the Special Operations Executive (SOE).
Somerset House, Park Lane:   Somerset House was an 18th-century town house on the east side of Park Lane, where it meets Oxford Street, in the Mayfair area of London. It was also known as 40 Park Lane, although a renumbering means that the site is now called 140 Park Lane.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Adams Row, W1K · Admiral Court, W1U · Aldburgh Mews, W1U · Archibald Mews, W1K · Ashland Place, W1U · Aybrook Street, W1U · Baker Street, EN6 · Baker Street, W1 · Baker Street, W1U · Bakers Mews, W1U · Balcombe Street, NW1 · Balcome Street, E9 · Balderton Flats, W1K · Balderton Street, W1K · Balfour Place, W1K · Barrett Street, W1U · Beaumont Mews, W1G · Beaumont Street, W1G · Bentinck Mansions, W1U · Bentinck Mews, W1U · Bentinck Street, W1U · Berkeley Mews, W1H · Binney Street, W1K · Bird Street, W1U · Blandford Street, W1U · Boston Place, NW1 · Broadstone Place, W1U · Brown Hart Gardens, W1K · Bryanston Square, W1G · Bulstrode Place, W1U · Bulstrode Street, W1G · Bulstrode Street, W1U · Carlos Place, W1K · Cavendish Square, W1G · Cavendish Street, W1G · Chandos Street, W1G · Cross Keys Close, W1U · Culross Street, W1K · Cumberland Gate, W1C · Davies Street, W1J · Davies Street, W1K · Davis Street, W1K · Dean’s Mews, W1G · Deans Mews, W1G · Devonshire Close, W1G · Devonshire Mews South, W1G · Devonshire Mews West, W1G · Devonshire Place Mews, W1G · Devonshire Place, W1G · Devonshire Street, W1B · Devonshire Street, W1G · Duchess Mews, W1G · Duchess Street, W1B · Duchess Street, W1W · Duke Street, W1K · Duke Street, W1U · Dukes Mews, W1U · Dunraven Street, W1K · Dunstable Mews, W1G · Edwards Mews, W1U · Fair Road, W1B · Farm Street, W1J · Fitzhardinge House, W1H · Fitzhardinge Street, W1H · Gee’s Court, W1U · Gees Court, W1U · George Street, W1U · George, W1U · Gilbert Street, W1K · Granville Place, W1H · Green Street, W1K · Grosvenor Square, W1A · Grosvenor Square, W1K · Hallam Street, W1W · Harley Place, W1G · Harley St Underground Car Park, W1G · Harley Street, W1 · Harley Street, W1G · Henrietta Place, W1G · Hertford House, W1U · Hinde Mews, W1U · Hinde Street, W1U · Holmes Place, W1U · Ivor Court, NW1 · Jacobs Well Mews, W1U · James Street, W1U · Jason Court, W1U · Jones Street, W1K · Kendall Place, W1U · Lees Place, W1K · Linhope Street, NW1 · Lowstock Road, W1U · Lumley Street, W1C · Lumley Street, W1K · Luxborough Towers, W1U · Manchester Mews, W1U · Manchester Square, W1U · Manchester Street, W1U · Mandeville Place, E15 · Mandeville Place, W1U · Mansfield Street, W1G · Margaret Street, W1G · Marylebone High Street, W1G · Marylebone High Street, W1U · Marylebone Lane, W1C · Marylebone Lane, W1U · Marylebone Mews, W1G · Marylebone Road, W1B · Marylebone Road, W1G · Marylebone Street, W1G · Mount Row, W1K · Mount Street Mews, W1K · Mount Street, W1 · Mount Street, W1K · Moxon Street, W1U · New Cavendish Street, W1 · New Cavendish Street, W1G · North Audley Street, W1K · North Row, W1K · Old Cavendish Street, W1 · Orchard Court, W1H · Orchard Street, W1H · Orchard Street, W1K · Ossington Buildings, W1U · Oxford Street, W1C · Park Crescent Mews East, W1B · Park Crescent Mews West, W1G · Park Lane, W1J · Park Street, W1K · Picton Place, W1U · Porter Street, W1U · Portland Place, W1A · Portland Place, W1B · Portman Close, W1U · Portman Mews South, W1H · Portman Square, W1H · Portman Street, W1C · Portman Street, W1H · Quadrant Arcade, W1B · Queen Anne Mews, W1G · Queen Anne Street, W1G · Red Place, W1K · Reeves Mews, W1K · Robert Adam Street, W1U · Rodmarton Street, W1U · Saint Vincent Street, W1U · Sedley Place, W1K · Seymour Mews, W1H · Shepards Place, W1K · Shepherds Place, W1K · Spanish Place, W1U · St Andrews Mansions, W1U · St Christophers House, W1U · St Christophers Place, W1U · St. Anselm’s Place, W1K · Stratford Place, W1C · Taunton Place, NW1 · Thayer Street, W1U · Three Kings Yard, W1K · Three Kings’ Yard, W1K · Upper Brook Street, W1K · Upper Grosvenor Street, W1K · Upper Harley Street, NW1 · Upper Wimpole Street, W1G · Vere Street, W1G · Waverley Court, W1G · Weighhouse Street, W1K · Welbeck Street, W1G · Welbeck Way, W1G · West One Shopping Centre, W1C · Westmoreland Street, W1G · Weymouth Mews, W1G · Weymouth Street, W1B · Weymouth Street, W1G · Weymouth Street, W1W · Wheatley Street, W1G · Wigmore Place, W1U · Wigmore Street, W1H · Wigmore Street, W1U · Wimpole Mews, W1G · Wimpole Street, W1G · Woods Mews, W1K ·


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Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.

Maps


Central London, north west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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