Tyburn

Village in/near Marble Arch, existing until 1799

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MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302017Fullscreen map
Village · Marble Arch · W1H · Contributed by The Underground Map
October
31
2017
A view of Tyburn (1750)
Credit: Old and New London: Volume 5. Edward Walford (1878)

Tyburn was a village of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch and the southern end of Edgware Road.


It took its name from the Tyburn Brook, a tributary of the River Westbourne. The name Tyburn, from Teo Bourne meaning ’boundary stream’, is quite widely occurring. The Tyburn consisted of two arms, one of which, crossed Oxford Street, near Stratford Place; while the other - later called the Westbourne - followed nearly the course of the present Westbourne Terrace and the Serpentine. The Westbourne had rows of elms growing on its banks which became a place of execution. The former Elms Lane in Bayswater, preserved the memory of these fatal elms, which can be regarded as the original ’Tyburn Trees.’

Tyburn Brook should not be confused with the better known River Tyburn, which is the next tributary of the River Thames to the east of the Westbourne.

The village was one of two manors of the parish of Marylebone, which was itself named after the stream, St Marylebone being a contraction of St Mary’s church by the bourne. Tyburn was recorded in the Domesday Book and stood approximately at the west end of what is now Oxford Street at the junction of two Roman roads. The predecessors of Oxford Street (called Tyburn Road in the mid 1700s) and Edgware Road were roads leading to the village, later joined by Park Lane (originally Tyburn Lane).

In the 1230s and 1240s the village of Tyburn was held by Gilbert de Sandford, the son of John de Sandford who had been the Chamberlain of Queen Eleanor. Eleanor had been the wife of King Henry II who encouraged her sons Henry and Richard to rebel against her husband, King Henry. In 1236 the city of London contracted with Sir Gilbert to draw water from Tyburn Springs, which he held, to serve as the source of the first piped water supply for the city. The water was supplied in lead pipes that ran from where Bond Street Station stands today, one-half mile east of Hyde Park, down to the hamlet of Charing (Charing Cross), along Fleet Street and over the Fleet Bridge, climbing Ludgate Hill (by gravitational pressure) to a public conduit at Cheapside. Water was supplied free to all comers.

Tyburn had significance from ancient times and was marked by a monument known as Oswulf’s Stone, which gave its name to the Ossulstone Hundred of Middlesex. The stone was covered over in 1851 when Marble Arch was moved to the area, but it was shortly afterwards unearthed and propped up against the Arch. It has not been seen since 1869.

Public executions took place at Tyburn, with the prisoners processed from Newgate Prison in the City, via St Giles in the Fields and Oxford Street. After the late 18th century, when executions were no longer carried out in public, they were carried out at Newgate Prison itself and at Horsemonger Lane Gaol in Southwark.

The first recorded execution took place - that of William Fitz Osbert, the populist leader of the poor of London - at a site next to the stream in 1196.

In 1571, the Tyburn Tree was erected at the junction of today’s Edgware Road, Bayswater Road and Oxford Street, near where Marble Arch is situated today. The "Tree" or "Triple Tree" was a novel form of gallows, consisting of a horizontal wooden triangle supported by three legs (an arrangement known as a "three-legged mare" or "three-legged stool"). Several felons could thus be hanged at once.

The Tree stood in the middle of the roadway, providing a major landmark in west London and presenting a very obvious symbol of the law to travellers.

The site of the gallows is now marked by three young oak trees that were planted in 2014 on an island in the middle of Edgware Road at its junction with Bayswater Road. Between the trees is a roundel with the inscription "The site of Tyburn Tree".

By the late 1700s, London’s sprawl had reached along Oxford Street and Tyburn village lost its identity.



Source: Wikipedia



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VIEW THE MARBLE ARCH AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARBLE ARCH AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARBLE ARCH AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARBLE ARCH AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE MARBLE ARCH AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Marble Arch

Marble Arch station was opened on 30 July 1900 by the Central London Railway.

Like all the original stations on the CLR, Marble Arch was served by lifts to the platforms but the station was reconstructed in the early 1930s to accommodate escalators. This saw the closure of the original station building, designed by the architect Harry Bell Measures, that was situated on the corner of Quebec Street and Oxford Street, and a replacement sub-surface ticket hall opened further to the west. The new arrangements came into use on 15 August 1932. The original surface building was later demolished.

The platforms, originally lined in plain white tiles, were refitted with decorative vitreous enamel panels in 1985. The panel graphics were designed by Annabel Grey.

The station was modernised in 2010 resulting in new finishes in all areas of the station, apart from the retention of various of the decorative enamel panels at platform level.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Church of the Annunciation:   The Church of the Annunciation, Marble Arch, is a Church of England parish church designed by Sir Walter Tapper. It is a Grade II* listed building.
Churchill Hotel:   The Hyatt Regency London - The Churchill is a five star hotel located on Portman Square.
Home House:   Home House is a Georgian town house at 20 Portman Square.
Marble Arch:   Marble Arch station was opened on 30 July 1900 by the Central London Railway.
Marble Arch:   Marble Arch is a 19th-century white marble faced triumphal arch.
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster:   The Metropolitan Borough of Westminster was a metropolitan borough in the County of London from 1900 to 1965.
Montagu House:   Montagu House at 22 Portman Square was a historic London house.
Odeon Marble Arch:   The Odeon Marble Arch (known as the Regal 1928-1945) was a cinema located opposite Marble Arch monument at the top of Park Lane, with its main entrance on Edgware Road.
Somerset House, Park Lane:   Somerset House was an 18th-century town house on the east side of Park Lane, where it meets Oxford Street, in the Mayfair area of London. It was also known as 40 Park Lane, although a renumbering means that the site is now called 140 Park Lane.
Speakers’ Corner:   Speakers’ Corner is in the northeast corner of Hyde Park.
St Georges Fields:   St George’s Fields are a former burial ground of St George’s, Hanover Square, lying between Connaught Street and Bayswater Road.
The Serpentine:   The Serpentine is a 40-acre (16 ha) recreational lake in Hyde Park.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Twopenny Tube:   In 1900, a pioneering underground railway began running in London.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
A4209, W2 · Albion Close, W2 · Albion Mews, W2 · Albion Street, W2 · Archery Close, W2 · Bathurst Mews, W2 · Berkeley Mews, W1H · Bilton Towers, W1H · Brendon Street, W1H · Brown Street, W1H · Brunswick Mews, W1H · Bryanston Mews West, W1H · Bryanston Place, W1H · Bryanston Square, W1H · Bryanston Street, W1C · Bryanston Street, W2 · Cambridge Square, W2 · Castlereagh Street, W1H · Cato Street, W1H · Clarendon Place, W2 · Clenston Mews, W1H · Clifton Place, W2 · Connaught Close, W2 · Connaught Place, W2 · Connaught Square, W2 · Connaught Street, W2 · Crawford Place, W1H · Cumberland Mansions, W1H · Dorset Street, W1U · Dunraven Street, W1K · Edgware Road Subway, W2 · Fitzhardinge House, W1H · Forset Street, W1H · Frederick Close, W2 · George Street, W1H · George Street, W2 · Gloucester Place, W1H · Gloucester Place, W1U · Gloucester Square, W2 · Great Cumberland Place, W1 · Great Cumberland Place, W1H · Hampden Gurney Street, W1H · Hampshire House, W2 · Harrowby Street, W1H · Hyde Park Crescent, W2 · Hyde Park Cresent, W2 · Hyde Park Gardens Mews, W2 · Hyde Park Gardens, W2 · Hyde Park Gardnes, W2 · Hyde Park Place, W2 · Hyde Park Square, W2 · Hyde Park Street, W2 · Hyde Park, W2 · Kendal Street, W2 · Marble Arch, W1H · Molyneux Street, W1H · Montagu Square, W1H · Montague Square, SE15 · New Quebec Street, W1H · Norfolk Crescent, W2 · North Carriage Drive, W2 · North Ride, W2 · Nutford Place, W1H · Old Quebec Street, W1 · Old Quebec Street, W1H · Oxford Square, W2 · Park Lane, W1C · Park Steps, W2 · Park West Place, W2 · Park West, W2 · Policeman’s Walk, W2 · Policeman’s Walk, W2 · Porchester Place, W2 · Portman Close, W1U · Portman Square, W1H · Portman Street, W1C · Portman Street, W1H · Portsea Mews, W2 · Portsea Place, W2 · Quadrangle Tower, W2 · Quebec Mews, W1H · Radnor Lodge, W2 · Radnor Mews, W2 · Radnor Place, W2 · Rainsford Street, W2 · Rodmarton Street, W1U · Serpentine Bridge, W2 · Serpentine Road, SW1X · Serpentine Road, SW7 · Serpentine Road, W1J · Serpentine Road, W1K · Serpentine Road, W2 · Seymour Place, W1H · Seymour Street, W1H · Seymour Street, W2 · Shouldham Street, W1H · Southwick Place, W2 · Southwick Street, W2 · St Johns Church, W2 · Stanhope House, W2 · Stanhope Place, W2 · Stanhope Terrace, W2 · Stourcliffe Street, W1H · Strathearn Place, W2 · Sussex Gardens, W2 · Sussex Place, W2 · Tigris House Fourth Floor, W2 · Upper Berkeley Street, W1H · Vincent Court, W1H · West Carriage Drive, SW7 · West Carriage Drive, W2 · Woods Mews, W1K ·


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Central London, north west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
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John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
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Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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