Wellington Arch

Monument in/near Hyde Park Corner, existing between 1830 and now

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Monument · Hyde Park Corner · W1J · Contributed by The Underground Map
July
14
2018
The Wellington Statue on the Arch in the 1850s
Credit: Unknown

Wellington Arch is located to the south of Hyde Park at the western corner of Green Park.



Both the Wellington Arch and Marble Arch (originally sited in front of Buckingham Palace) were planned in 1825 by George IV to commemorate Britain’s victories in the Napoleonic Wars. The Wellington Arch was also conceived as an outer gateway to Constitution Hill and therefore a grand entrance into central London from the west.

The presence of a turnpike gate at this point had led, in the 18th century, to a strong perception that this was the beginning of London (reflected in the nickname for Apsley House as "No 1, London") and the arch was intended to reflect the importance of the position.

The arch was built between 1826 and 1830 to a design by Decimus Burton. It was planned as part of a single composition with Burton’s screen that forms the Hyde Park Corner entrance to Hyde Park. The arch was originally positioned directly to the south of the screen, with the end of Constitution Hill re-aligned to meet it squarely, to form a corresponding entrance to a grand ceremonial route towards Buckingham Palace.

The arch has a single opening, and uses the Corinthian order. Much of the intended exterior ornamentation was omitted as a cost-saving exercise necessitated by the King’s overspending on the refurbishment of Buckingham Palace, which was underway at the same time. A contemporary account, written in anticipation of its completion to its original plan, describes what was intended.

The entabulature is loft and elegant with a richly sculptured frieze, and a row of boldly projecting lions’ heads on the cymatium, marking the centres of columns and other sub-divisions of the order. Above the entablature, on a lofty blocking course, is raised an attic, the body of which is embellished with a sculptural representation of an ancient triumph. On each of the columns is a statue of a warrior, and on the summit of the acroterium which surmounts the attic is a figure in a quadriga or ancient four horse chariot.

In 1846 the arch was selected as a location for a statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, soldier and Prime Minister. The bronze Wellington Statue by Matthew Cotes Wyatt which eventually crowned the arch was at 40 tons and 28 feet high, the largest equestrian figure ever made.

It generated considerable controversy and ridicule at the time. Motions were put in place to move it to a different location but as this could have been seen as insulting to Wellington it was left in place on the orders of the Queen and remained there throughout the remainder of the Duke’s lifetime.

In 1882-3 the arch was moved a short distance to its present location on Hyde Park Corner to facilitate a road widening scheme. In the new location it lost its original relationship to the entrance of Hyde Park, but was now on axis with the main part of Constitution Hill, to which it continued to form a grand entrance. It is now in the centre of a large traffic island, taken from what was the western tip of Green Park.

When the arch was rebuilt in its new position, the Wellington statue was not replaced. It was removed to Aldershot, and a smaller equestrian statue of the duke was commissioned from Joseph Edgar Boehm to stand on a plinth nearby. Decimus Burton had originally envisaged a sculpture of a quadriga on top of the arch. His intentions were finally realised in 1912, with the installation of a bronze designed by Adrian Jones. It is based on a smaller original which caught the eye of Edward VII at a Royal Academy exhibition. The sculpture depicts Nike, the Winged Goddess of Victory, descending on the chariot of war. The face of the charioteer leading the quadriga is that of a small boy (actually the son of Lord Michelham,, who funded the sculpture). The angel of peace was modelled on Beatrice Stewart. The statue is the largest bronze sculpture in Europe.

The arch is hollow inside, and until 1992 housed the smallest police station in London.

Source: Wikipedia



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VIEW THE HYDE PARK CORNER AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HYDE PARK CORNER AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HYDE PARK CORNER AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HYDE PARK CORNER AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HYDE PARK CORNER AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

Hyde Park Corner

At the other end of Park Lane from Marble Arch, Hyde Park Corner has struck terror into many a learner driver.

In the centre of the roundabout stands Constitution Arch (or Wellington Arch), designed by Decimus Burton as a memorial to the Duke of Wellington and originally providing a grand entrance to London. It was built as a northern gate to the grounds of Buckingham Palace. Originally the arch was topped with an equestrian statue of the Duke by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, but it was replaced with the current work, The Angel of Peace descending on the Quadriga of Victory (1912) by Adrian Jones.

Other monuments at Hyde Park Corner include Jones’s Monument to the Cavalry of the Empire (off the west side of Park Lane), Alexander Munro’s Boy and Dolphin statue (in a rose garden parallel to Rotten Row, going west from Hyde Park Corner), the Wellington Monument (off the west side of Park Lane) and a statue of Byron (on a traffic island opposite the Wellington Monument).

To the north of the roundabout is Apsley House, the home of the first Duke of Wellington. Such was Wellington’s ego, that he insisted that his letters were addressed to Number 1, London.

Hyde Park Corner was used as a code to announce to the Government the death of King George VI in 1952.

Hyde Park Corner tube station was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. It is one of the few stations which have no associated buildings above ground, the station being fully underground.

The original, Leslie Green-designed station building still remains to the south of the road junction, notable by its ox-blood coloured tiles; it was until June 2010 used as a pizza restaurant, and since January 2013 it is the Wellesley Hotel. The building was taken out of use in the early 1930s when the station was provided with escalators in place of lifts although an emergency stairway provides a connection to the platforms. The lift shafts are now used to provide ventilation.

After the station was rebuilt with escalators the adjacent little-used station at Down Street to the east (towards Green Park) was taken out of use.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
25 Park Lane:   25 Park Lane was the London residence of Sir Philip Sassoon.
Apsley House:   There is a rumour that the 1st Duke of Wellington insisted his post to his home, Apsley House, be addressed as Number One, London. It however was not due only to ego.
Apsley Way:   Apsley Way is the formal name for the pathway which runs under Wellington Arch.
Berkeley Square:   
Blandel Bridge:   The bridge over the Westbourne at Sloane Square was called Blandel Bridge and was later renamed Grosvenor Bridge.
Bond Street:   Where the rich go shopping
Buckingham Palace Gardens:   
Churchill Hotel:   The Hyatt Regency London - The Churchill is a five star hotel located on Portman Square.
Down Street :   Down Street, also known as Down Street (Mayfair), is a disused station on the London Underground, located in Mayfair.
Eaton House Belgravia Pre-Preparatory School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 8. Admissions policy: Non-selective.
Eaton Square Upper School, Mayfair:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 18.
Ebury Farm:   Ebury Farm was a simple marshy farm whose lands later became the richest real estate in London.
Francis Holland School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 11 and 18.
Francis Holland School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 18.
Garden House School:   Other independent school which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11. Admissions policy: Non-selective.
Goring Hotel:   The Goring Hotel is a 5-star hotel in London, England.
Green Park:   
Halkin Hotel:   The Halkin (styled as The Halkin by COMO) is a 5-star hotel.
Holy Trinity CofE Primary School:   Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
Home House:   Home House is a Georgian town house at 20 Portman Square.
Hyde Park Corner:   At the other end of Park Lane from Marble Arch, Hyde Park Corner has struck terror into many a learner driver.
Inchbald School of Design:   Miscellaneous which accepts students between the ages of 18 and 99.
InterContinental London:   InterContinental London Park Lane is a luxury 5-star hotel.
Knightsbridge and Belgravia Children’s Centre Information Point:   This is a children’s centre.
London Lock Hospital:   The London Lock Hospital was the first venereal disease clinic.
Mayfair:   Mayfair (originally called The May Fair) is an area of central London, by the east edge of Hyde Park. Mayfair boasts some of the capital's most exclusive property of all types.
Montagu House:   Montagu House at 22 Portman Square was a historic London house.
On This Day in London: 4 November:   On This Day in London: 4 November
Orchard Court:   Orchard Court is an apartment block off of Portman Square in London. Known in French as Le Verger, it was used during the Second World War as the London base of F section of the Special Operations Executive (SOE).
Park Lane Hotel:   The Park Lane Hotel is a 5 Star hotel on Piccadilly, London.
RAF Bomber Command Memorial:   The Royal Air Force Bomber Command Memorial is a memorial commemorating the crews of RAF Bomber Command who embarked on missions during the Second World War.
Royal Aeronautical Society:   The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British-founded multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community.
Royal Artillery Memorial:   The Royal Artillery Memorial is a stone memorial at Hyde Park Corner, dedicated to the First World War casualties of the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
Royal Mews:   The Royal Mews is a mews (i.e. combined stables, carriage house and in recent times also the garage) of the British Royal Family.
Sir Simon Milton Westminster University Technical College:   University technical college (Secondary) which accepts students between the ages of 14 and 19.
Sloane Square:   Sloane Square station was opened on 24 December 1868 by the Metropolitan District Railway when the company opened the first section of its line.
St Barnabas’ CofE Primary School:   Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 4 and 11.
St Paul’s Church:   St Paul’s Church is an Anglican church of the Anglo-Catholic tradition located at 32a Wilton Place.
St Peter’s Eaton Square CofE Primary School:   Voluntary aided school (Primary) which accepts students between the ages of 3 and 11.
The 52 bus:   In modern times, the 52 bus route plies from Victoria station as far as Willesden Bus Garage.
The Royal College of Nursing:   Higher education institutions
Victoria:   The railways largely replaced the canals as a means of transport. Uniquely for a main line station, Victoria station was built on top of one.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
An Omnibus Ride to Piccadilly Circus:   An Omnibus Ride to Piccadilly Circus, Mr Gladstone Travelling with Ordinary Passengers, 1885
Shepherd Market:   Shepherd Market was described by Arthur Bingham Walkley in 1925 as one of the oddest incongruities in London.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Adams Row, W1K · Aldburgh Mews, W1U · Aldford Street, W1K · Ann’s Close, SW1X · Archibald Mews, W1K · Audley Square, W1K · Avery Row, W1K · Bakers Mews, W1U · Balderton Flats, W1K · Balderton Street, W1K · Balfour Mews, W1K · Balfour Place, W1K · Barrett Street, W1U · Beeston Place, SW1W · Belgrave Mews North, SW1X · Belgrave Mews South, SW1X · Belgrave Mews West, SW1X · Belgrave Place, SW1X · Belgrave Square, SW1X · Berkeley Mews, W1H · Berkeley Square House, W1J · Berkeley Square, W1J · Binney Street, W1K · Bird Street, W1U · Blenheim Street, W1S · Bloomfield Terrace, SW1W · Bolton Street, W1J · Bond Street, W1S · Bourdon Place, W1K · Bourdon Street, W1K · Bourne Street, SW1W · Bradbrook House, SW1X · Brick Street, W1J · Brook Street, W1K · Brook Street, W1S · Brooks Mews, W1K · Brown Hart Gardens, W1K · Bruton Lane, W1J · Bruton Lane, W1S · Bruton Place, W1J · Bruton Street, W1J · Buckingham Palace Road, SW1A · Buckingham Palace Road, SW1E · Buckingham Palace Road, SW1V · Buckingham Palace Road, SW1W · Buckingham Palace, SW1W · Buckland House, SW1V · Bulleid Way, SW1W · Bunhouse Place, SW1W · Burton Mews, SW1W · Cadogan Lane, SW1X · Cadogan Place, SW1X · Carlos Place, W1K · Carrington Street, W1J · Cavalry Square, SW1W · Cavalry Square, SW3 · Cavendish Square, W1G · Cavendish Street, W1G · Chapel Street, SW1X · Charles Street, W1J · Chesham Close, SW1X · Chesham Mews, SW1X · Chesham Place, SW1X · Chesham Street, SW1X · Chester Close, SW1X · Chester Close, W1M · Chester Mews, SW1X · Chester Row, SW1W · Chester Square Mews, SW1W · Chester Square, SW1W · Chester Street, SW1X · Chesterfield Gardens, W1J · Chesterfield Street, W1J · Cheylesmore House, SW1W · Clarges Mews, W1J · Clarges Street, W1J · Cliveden Place, SW1W · Colonnade Walk, SW1W · Conduit Street, SW1W · Constitution Hill, SW1W · Culross Street, W1K · Cumberland Gate, W1C · Cumberland Street, SW1V · Curzon Square, W1K · Curzon Street, W1J · Davies Mews, W1K · Davies Street, W1J · Davies Street, W1K · Davis Street, W1K · Deanery Street, W1K · Derby Street, W1J · Dering Street, W1S · Dorchester Ride, W1K · Dove Walk, SW1W · Down Street, W1J · Duke of Wellington Place, SW1X · Duke of York Square, SW1W · Duke Street, W1K · Duke Street, W1U · Dukes Mews, W1U · Dunraven Street, W1K · Duplex Ride, SW1X · East Concourse, SW1V · Eaton Close, SW1W · Eaton Gate, SW1W · Eaton Lane, SW1W · Eaton Mews North, SW1X · Eaton Mews South, SW1W · Eaton Mews West, SW1W · Eaton Place, SW1X · Eaton Row, SW1W · Eaton Square, SW1W · Eaton Terrace, SW1W · Ebury Bridge Road, SW1W · Ebury Bridge, SW1V · Ebury Bridge, SW1W · Ebury Mews, SW1W · Ebury Square, SW1W · Ebury Street, SW1W · Ebury Strreet, SW1W · Eccleston Bridge, SW1V · Eccleston Bridge, SW1W · Eccleston Place, SW1W · Eccleston Square, SW1V · Eccleston Street, SW1W · Edwards Mews, W1U · Elizabeth Bridge, SW1V · Elizabeth Street, SW1W · Ellis Street, SW1X · Farm Street, W1J · Fitzhardinge House, W1H · Fitzmaurice Place, W1J · Fountain Square, SW1W · Frederic Mews, SW1X · Garrick House, W1J · Gee’s Court, W1U · Gees Court, W1U · Gilbert Street, W1K · Graham Terrace, SW1W · Granville Place, W1H · Green Street, W1K · Groom Place, SW1X · Grosvenor Cottages, SW1W · Grosvenor Crescent Mews, SW1X · Grosvenor Crescent, SW1X · Grosvenor Cresent, SW1X · Grosvenor Gardens Mews East, SW1W · Grosvenor Gardens Mews North, SW1W · Grosvenor Gardens, SW1W · Grosvenor Hill, W1K · Grosvenor Place, SW1X · Grosvenor Square, W1A · Grosvenor Square, W1K · Grosvenor Street, W1K · Half Moon Street, W1J · Halkin Arcade, SW1X · Halkin Street, SW1X · Hamilton Mews, W1J · Hamilton Place, W1J · Hanover Square, W1S · Harcourt House, W1G · Harewood Place, W1S · Haunch Of Venison Yard, W1K · Hay’s Mews, W1J · Hays Mews, W1J · Headfort Place, SW1X · Henrietta Place, W1G · Hertford Street, W1J · Hill Street, W1J · Hobart Place, SW1W · Holbein Mews, SW1W · Holbein Place, SW1W · Holles Street, W1C · Hugh Street, SW1V · Hyde Park Corner, W1J · James Street, W1U · Jason Court, W1U · Jones Street, W1K · Kinnerton Place South, SW1X · Kinnerton Street, SW1X · Kinnerton Yard, SW1X · Lambs Close, SW1W · Lancashire Court, W1S · Landsdowne Row, W1J · Lanesborough Place, SW1X · Lansdowne House, W1J · Lansdowne Row, W1J · Lees Place, W1K · Little Chester Street, SW1X · London Loop, CR8 · Lovers’ Walk, W1K · Lower Belgrave Street, SW1W · Lower Grosvenor Place, SW1W · Lower Sloane Street, SW1W · Lowndes Street, SW1X · Lumley Street, W1C · Lumley Street, W1K · Lyall Mews West, SW1X · Lyall Mews, SW1X · Main Concourse, SW1V · Mandeville Place, E15 · Mandeville Place, W1U · Market Mews, W1J · Marylebone Lane, W1C · Mews Yard, WC2H · Montrose Place, SW1X · Motcomb Street, SW1X · Mount Row, W1K · Mount Street Mews, W1K · Mount Street, W1 · Mount Street, W1K · Mozart Terrace, SW1W · New Bond Street, W1 · New Bond Street, W1S · North Audley Street, W1K · North Row, W1K · Old Barrack Yard, SW1X · Old Cavendish Street, W1 · Old Park Lane, W1J · Ollin Street, E14 · Orchard Court, W1H · Orchard Street, W1H · Orchard Street, W1K · Ormonde Place, SW1W · Oxford Street, W1A · Oxford Street, W1C · Park Lane, W1J · Park Lane, W1K · Park Street, W1K · Park Towers Hotel, SW1X · Park Towers, W1J · Parkside, SW1X · Passmore Street, SW1W · Pembroke Close, SW1X · Phipps Mews, SW1W · Picton Place, W1U · Pimilco Walk, N1 · Pimlico Road, SW1W · Pitt’s Head Mews, W1J · Pont Street, SW1X · Portman Mews South, W1H · Portman Square, W1H · Portman Street, W1C · Portman Street, W1H · Providence Court, W1K · Queen Street, W1J · Ranelagh Grove, SW1W · Red Lion Yard, W1K · Red Place, W1K · Reeves Mews, W1K · Rex Place, W1K · Roberts Mews, SW1X · Sedding Street, SW1W · Sedding Street, SW1X · Sedley Place, W1C · Sedley Place, W1K · Semley Place, SW1W · Seymour Mews, W1H · Shepards Place, W1K · Shepherd Market, W1J · Shepherd Street, W1J · Shepherds Place, W1K · Showing every photo/image so far featured, SW1W · Sloane Court East, SW1W · Sloane Court East, SW3 · Sloane Court West, SW3 · Sloane Gardens, SW1W · Sloane Square House, SW1W · Sloane Square, SW1W · Sloane Terrace, SW1X · South Audley Street, W1K · South Eaton Place, SW1W · South Molton Lane, W1K · South Molton Street, W1K · South Street, W1K · St Barnabas Mews, SW1W · St Barnabas Street, SW1W · St Christophers House, W1U · St Christophers Place, W1U · St. Anselm’s Place, W1K · Stanhope Gate, W1K · Stanhope Row, W1J · Stratford Place, W1C · Stratton Street, W1J · Studio Place, SW1X · Sutherland Street, SW1V · Tenterden Street, W1S · Terminus Place, SW1 · Terminus Place, SW1V · Terminus Place, SW1W · The Royal Mews, SW1E · The Royal Mews, SW1W · Three Kings Yard, W1K · Three Kings’ Yard, W1K · Tilney Street, W1K · Tintern House, SW1V · Trebeck Street, W1J · Upper Belgrave Street, SW1X · Upper Brook Street, W1K · Upper Grosvenor Street, W1K · Vere Street, W1G · Victoria Place, SW1W · Victoria Square, SW1W · Victoria Subway, SW1X · Victoria Walk, E3 · Walden House, SW1W · Waverton Street, W1J · Weighhouse Street, W1K · West Eaton Place Mews, SW1X · West Eaton Place, SW1X · West Halkin Street, SW1X · West One Shopping Centre, W1C · White Horse Street, W1J · Whittaker Street, SW1W · Wigmore Street, W1H · Wigmore Street, W1U · Wilbraham Place, SW1X · William Mews, SW1X · Wilton Crescent, SW1X · Wilton Cresent, SW1X · Wilton Mews, SW1X · Wilton Place, SW1X · Wilton Row, SW1X · Wilton Street, SW1X · Wilton Terrace, SW1X · Woods Mews, W1K · Woodstock Street, W1C ·
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Maps


Central London, north west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Central London, south west (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, south west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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