Source of the Kilbourne

River in/near Hampstead, existing until 1900

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River · Hampstead · NW3 · Contributed by The Underground Map
APRIL
6
2015
The Westbourne river outfall, Hyde Park, in 1880

The easternmost branch of the River Westbourne rises just south of the centre of Hampstead,

There is another branch which rises at Whitestone Pond, Hampstead Heath which flows approximately southward.

It meets this eastern branch in Kilburn - to skirt east of Hyde Park's Serpentine lake after about 3.3 miles, to Sloane Square, Chelsea after about 1 mile, passes centrally under the south side of Royal Hospital Chelsea's Ranelagh Gardens after about half a mile, then issues into the Inner London Tideway.

In common with several urbanised streams, its basin contributes to a network of storm drainage channels, with a sewer beneath its route.

The river was originally called the Kilburn (Cye Bourne – royal stream, 'Bourne' being an Anglo-Saxon word for 'river') but has been known, at different times and in different places, as Kelebourne, Kilburn, Bayswater, Bayswater River, Bayswater Rivulet, Serpentine River, The Bourne, Westburn Brook, the Ranelagh River, and the Ranelagh Sewer. It is of similar size to the Fleet.

The waters of the Westbourne were originally pure and in 1437 and 1439 conduits were laid to carry water from the Westbourne into the City of London, for drinking. In the nineteenth century, however, the water became filthy and impure by its use as a sewer, and the rise of the water closet as the prevailing form of sanitation.

When Belgravia, Chelsea and Paddington were developed, it became necessary to drive the river Westbourne underground to build over it. The river was therefore directed into pipes in the early part of the nineteenth century, work which was completed in the 1850s. Since then, the Westbourne has been one of the lost rivers of London, running underground in a pipe.

The pipe can still be seen running above the platform of Sloane Square tube station. It is located just below the ceiling towards the end of the platforms closest to the exits. The pipe is the original one constructed in the nineteenth century. Although the station was badly bombed during the Battle of Britain in November 1940, the old iron pipe was not damaged.

A vestige of the river, a wide quay opens into the river Thames about 300 yards west of Chelsea Bridge. An overflow outfall, from a pipe named the Ranelagh Sewer, can still be seen at low tide, as most of the Westbourne's course has been used as a convenient depression in the land to place the local sewerage system, some of which takes surface water to form a combined sewer which links to two intercept sewers, the Middle Level Sewer and the Northern Low Level Sewer in the London sewerage system.

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VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Hampstead

Hampstead though now considered an integral part of London, has retained much of its village charm.

Hampstead is on a steep hill and the tube station platforms are the deepest on the London Underground network, at 58.5 metres below ground level. It has the deepest lift shaft on the Underground.

Although early records of Hampstead itself can be found in a grant by King Ethelred the Unready to the monastery of St. Peter's at Westminster (AD 986) and it is referred to in the Domesday Book (1086), the history of Hampstead is generally traced back to the 17th century.

Trustees of the Well started advertising the medicinal qualities of the chalybeate waters (water impregnated with iron) in 1700. Although Hampstead Wells was initially successful, its popularity declined in the 1800s due to competition with other London spas. The spa was demolished in 1882, although a water fountain was left behind.

Hampstead started to expand following the opening of the North London Railway in the 1860s (now on the London Overground), and expanded further after the tube station opened in 1907.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
6 Ellerdale Road:   6 Ellerdale Road is a house built by the Arts and Crafts movement architect Richard Norman Shaw for himself in the period 1874 to 1876.
An introduction to Hampstead by G.E. Mitton (1902):   This text originates from "The Fascination of Hampstead" by Geraldine Edith Mitton (published 1902)
Anna Freud Centre:   The Anna Freud Centre is a child mental health research, training and treatment centre.
Bracknell Way, NW3:   Bracknell Way is a small alleyway, usable only by pedestrians
Branch Hill Pond:   Branch Hill Pond which was fed from a spring which was also the main source of the Westbourne.
Bull and Bush:   The Old Bull and Bush is a Grade II listed public house near Hampstead Heath in London which gave its name to the music hall song ’Down at the old Bull and Bush’.
Camden Arts Centre:   Camden Arts Centre is a place for world-class contemporary art exhibitions and education.
Devonshire House Preparatory School:   Devonshire House preparatory school is based in four large Victorian houses in Hampstead.
Everyman Cinema:   The Everyman, in Heath Street, Hampstead, opened as a cinema on 26 December 1933.
Finchley Road And Frognal:   Finchley Road & Frognal railway station lies on the London Overground network.
Fitzjohn’s Primary School:   Fitzjohn’s Primary School is a community primary school, established in 1953.
Freud Museum:   The Freud Museum is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, who lived there with his family during the last year of his life.
Frognal Bridge:   Where Frognal meets the Finchley Road, there is an indiscernible dip...
Great Hollow Elm:   The Great Hollow Elm stood at the top of Hampstead Heath.
Hampstead:   Hampstead though now considered an integral part of London, has retained much of its village charm.
Hampstead Town:   This article first appeared in ’A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington’.
Hampstead tunnel:   Hampstead Tunnel, 1166 yards long, was built as part of the Hampstead Junction Railway, and opened on 2 January 1860.
Hare and Hounds:   The Hare and Hounds was the northernmost public house in Hampstead.
Keats House:   Keats House is a writer’s house museum in a house once occupied by the Romantic poet John Keats.
Netherhall House:   Netherhall House is a catered intercollegiate halls of residence for men, founded in 1952.
New West End:   New West End was created in the 1840s on the Finchley Road.
Pentameters Theatre:   The Pentameters Theatre was founded in 1968 and is 60-seat venue and is a fringe theatre, located above the Three Horseshoes public house in Hampstead.
Piecemeal building:   The infant River Westbourne crossed, what in 1900, was still a boggy field.
Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel:   The Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel is a place of worship and a member of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, the umbrella organisation for British Unitarians.
Rosslyn House:   Rosslyn (Roslyn) House, which stood between Wedderburn and Lyndhurst Roads, was one of the last of the famous old Hampstead houses to be destroyed.
Shepherd’s Well:   Shepherd’s Well, whose flow was thought to be nearly as pure as distilled water, is the source of the River Tyburn.
St John, Hampstead:   St John-at-Hampstead is a Church of England parish church dedicated to St John the Evangelist.
St Mary’s Church:   St Mary’s Chapel, now known as St Mary’s Church, is a Grade II* listed Roman Catholic church.
The Academy School:   The Academy School is an independent preparatory school for boys and girls aged between 6 and 13.
The Royal School, Hampstead:   The Royal School, Hampstead, was an independent girls’ day and boarding school. The school educated girls aged 3-16.
Two streams meet:   Somewhere beneath the basement of 16 Frognal, NW3 two tributaries of the River Westbourne meet.
University College School:   University College School, generally known as UCS, is an independent school charity situated in northwest London.
Whitestone Pond:   Whitestone Pond is the source of one of London’s lost rivers, the River Westbourne.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Hampstead station (1907):   Hampstead station pictured at its opening in 1907
Jack Straw's Castle (1907):   Jack Straw’s Castle Hotel, photographed in 1907.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
, NW3 · Alvanley Gardens, NW6 · Arkwright Road, NW3 · Avenue Mansions, NW3 · Back Lane, NW3 · Back Lane, NW9 · Beswick Mews, NW6 · Birchwood Drive, NW3 · Bracknell Gardens, NW3 · Bracknell Way, NW3 · Branch Hill, NW3 · Cannon Lane, NW3 · Cannon Place, NW3 · Carlingford Road, NW3 · Chesterford Gardens, NW3 · Christ Church, NW3 · Christchurch Hill, NW3 · Church Row, NW3 · Coach House Yard, NW3 · Columbas Drive, NW3 · Croft Way, NW3 · Croftway, NW3 · Denning Road, NW3 · Downshire Hill, NW3 · Dresden Close, NW6 · East Heath Road, · East Heath Road, NW3 · Ellerdale Close, NW3 · Ellerdale Road, NW3 · Elm Row, NW3 · Falcon Lodge, NW3 · Ferncroft Avenue, NW3 · Finchley Road, NW6 · Firecrest Drive, NW3 · Fitzjohn's Avenue, NW3 · Flask Cottages, NW3 · Flask Walk, NW3 · Fortune Green Road, NW3 · Frognal Close, NW3 · Frognal Lane, NW3 · Frognal Parade, NW3 · Frognal Rise, NW3 · Frognal Way, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Gainsborough Gardens, NW3 · Gardnor Road, NW3 · Gayton Crescent, NW3 · Gayton Road, NW3 · Grange Gardens, NW3 · Greenaway Gardens, NW3 · Greenhill, NW3 · Grove Place, NW3 · Hampstead Gate, NW3 · Hampstead Grove, NW3 · Hampstead High Street, NW3 · Hampstead Hill Gardens, NW3 · Hampstead Square, NW3 · Heath Brow, NW3 · Heath Drive, NW3 · Heath Hurst Road, NW3 · Heath Side, NW3 · Heath Street, NW3 · Heath Villas, NW3 · Heysham Lane, NW3 · Holly Berry Lane, NW3 · Holly Bush Vale, NW3 · Holly Hill, NW3 · Holly Mount, NW3 · Holly Walk, NW3 · Judges’ Walk, NW3 · Keats Grove, NW3 · Kemplay Road, NW3 · Kidderpore Avenue, NW3 · Kidderpore Gardens, NW3 · Lakis Close, NW3 · Langland Gardens, NW3 · Lindfield Gardens, NW3 · Lithos Road, NW3 · Lithos Road, NW3 · Lower Terrace, NW3 · Lymington Road, NW3 · Lyndhurst Road, NW3 · Maresfield Gardens, NW3 · Minton Mews, NW6 · Mount Vernon, NW3 · Netherhall Gardens, NW3 · Netherhall Way, NW3 · New End Square, NW3 · New End, NW3 · Nutley Terrace, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park, NW3 · Oak Hill Way, NW3 · Oakhill Avenue, NW3 · Old Brewery Mews, NW3 · Oriel Court, NW3 · Oriel Place, NW3 · Palace Court, NW3 · Perrins Court, NW3 · Perrins Walk, NW3 · Pilgrims Lane, NW3 · Pilgrims Place, NW3 · Prince Arthur Mews, NW3 · Prince Arthur Road, NW3 · Redington Gardens, NW3 · Redington Road, NW3 · Rosecroft Avenue, NW3 · Rosemont Road, NW3 · Rosslyn Hill, NW3 · Rosslyn Mews, NW3 · Rudall Crescent, NW3 · Shepherd’s Path, NW3 · Shepherd's Path, NW3 · Shepherds Walk, NW3 · Spaniards Road, NW3 · Spedan Close, NW3 · Spode Walk, NW6 · Streatley Place, NW3 · Studholme Court, NW3 · Telegraph Hill, NW3 · Templewood Avenue, NW3 · Templewood Gardens, NW3 · The Gables, NW3 · The Mount, NW3 · Thurlow Road, NW3 · Upper Terrace, NW3 · Vale of Health, NW3 · Vane Close, NW3 · Village Mount, NW3 · Well Road, NW3 · Well Walk, NW3 · Whitestone Lane, NW3 · Willoughby Road, NW3 · Willow Road, NW3 · Windmill Hill, NW3 · Worcester Mews, NW6 · Yorkshire Grey Place, NW3 ·


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The Fascination of Hampstead
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Maps


John Rocque Map of Hampstead (1762).
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map of Hampstead covers an area stretching from the edge in the northwest of present-day Dollis Hill to Islington in the southeast.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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