Shepherd’s Well

Water well in/near Hampstead, existing until 1880

 HOME  ARTICLE  MAP  FULLSCREEN  STREETS  RECENT  BLOG  HELP  CONTACT 
Click here to log in on Facebook Advanced
MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302017Fullscreen map
Water well · Hampstead · NW3 · Contributed by The Underground Map
August
17
2015
Shepherd’s Well in 1820

Shepherd’s Well, whose flow was thought to be nearly as pure as distilled water, is the source of the River Tyburn.

Also known as The Conduit, the well provided a source of good quality soft drinking water for the residents of Hampstead. The walk to the nearest road meant that well carriers sold water by the pail or two pails because of the yoke needed for carrying the water. The spring never froze and only vary rarely ran dry.

There was an arch over the conduit, and rails stood round it.

At the close of the 1700s Lord Loughborough, its landwoner, tried to stop locals from obtaining the water, by enclosing the well. So great was the popular indignation, that an appeal was made to the Courts of Law, when a decision was given in the people’s favour, and so the well remained in constant use until well into the nineteenth century.

Hone’s Table Book, in the nineteenth century, writes the following about Shepherd’s Well:

The arch, embedded above and around by the green turf, forms a conduit-head to a beautiful spring; the specific gravity of the fluid, which yields several tons a day, is little more than that of distilled water. Hampstead abounds in other springs, but they are mostly impregnated with mineral substances. The water of ’Shepherd’s Well,’ therefore, is in continual request; and those who cannot otherwise obtain it are supplied through a few of the villagers, who make a scanty living by carrying it to houses for a penny a pailful. There is no carriage-way to the spot, and these poor things have much hard work for a very little money. .... The chief inconvenience of habitations in this delightful village is the inadequate distribution of good water. Occasional visitants, for the sake of health, frequently sustain considerable injury by the insalubrity of private springs, and charge upon the fluid they breathe the mischief they derive from the fluid they drink. The localities of the place afford almost every variety of aspect and temperature that invalids require; and a constant sufficiency of wholesome water might be easily obtained by a few simple arrangements.

Once Hampstead became supplied by the New River Company the conduit became neglected - a small swamp. Railway tunneling under Hampstead diverted the waters away and finally streets and houses were built over the site.

A plaque on the corner of Fitzjohn’s Avenue and Lyndhurst Road marks the position of the well or close to it as its exact position is in the middle of the Road.

Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence



Shepherd’s Well news feed:
Add a comment to the Shepherd’s Well news feed.
Ensure that contributions are kept civilised and are not abusive.
We store your comment's IP address and reserve the right to apply bans where community standards are violated.
Please enter your name:
Enter the information you wish to add to Shepherd’s Well:
Please prove that you are a human by typing the text that you see in the picture below.
CAPTCHA Image
Refresh Image
You can completely dispense with this CAPTCHA palava by logging onto our Facebook app.
Contribution type:
 

If you authorise our The Undeground Map Facebook app by clicking the Facebook logo at the top right of the screen, you can add stories, photos and more to this location.
Note that the Undeground Map Facebook app does not post to Facebook on your behalf.
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 24 Sep 2017 04:20 GMT   
Expires: 8 Oct 2017 04:20 GMT   
IP:
1:1
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Jeremy Corbyn greeted by large crowds at mass rally to kick off Labour party conference
Jeremy Corbyn was greeted by large crowds as he staged a mass rally in a Brighton park to kick off the Labour party conference.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/politics/jeremy-corbyn-greeted-by-large-crowds-at-mass-rally-to-kick-off-labour-party-conference-a3642091.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 22:20 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 22:20 GMT   
IP:
1:2
Post by LDNnews: Chalk Farm
Manchester City 5 Crystal Palace 0: Five-star City crush Roy Hodgson's men as wait for goal goes on
Raheem Sterling scored twice as Manchester City maintained their unbeaten start to the Premier League season with a comfortable 5-0 victory over struggling Crystal Palace.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/manchester-city-5-crystal-palace-0-fivestar-city-crush-roy-hodgsons-men-as-wait-for-goal-goes-on-a3641941.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 09:20 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 09:20 GMT   
IP:
1:3
Post by LDNnews: Belsize Park
Diego Costa admits he didn't leave Chelsea the way he wanted as he arrives to complete Atletico Madrid move
Diego Costa admitted he had not joined Atletico Madrid in the manner he had wanted as he landed in the Spanish capital to complete his acrimonious transfer from Chelsea.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/diego-costa-admits-he-didnt-leave-chelsea-the-way-he-wanted-as-he-arrives-to-complete-atletico-a3641691.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Sep 2017 03:50 GMT   
Expires: 7 Oct 2017 03:50 GMT   
IP:
1:4
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Four passengers arrested after 'drunken incident' diverts easyJet flight
Four "drunken" passengers have been arrested after they forced an EasyJet plane to divert to Bristol.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/four-passengers-arrested-after-drunken-incident-diverts-easyjet-flight-a3641561.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 20:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 20:00 GMT   
IP:
1:5
Post by LDNnews: Swiss Cottage
Builders have started transforming a water depot in Colliers Wood into new homes
Work has begun to transform a water depot in Colliers Wood into more than 70 homes.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15552974.Builders_have_started_transforming_a_water_depot_in_Colliers_Wood_into_new_homes/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 20:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 20:00 GMT   
IP:
1:6
Post by LDNnews: Finchley Road
Football fans have been charged with smoke grenade offences at Charlton-Gillingham match
Police have charged a pair of football fans for allegedly throwing and possessing a smoke grenade at a Gillingham home game against Charlton.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15553044.Football_fans_have_been_charged_with_smoke_grenade_offences_at_Charlton_Gillingham_match/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 11:10 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 11:10 GMT   
IP:
1:7
Post by LDNnews: Chalk Farm
Unite union under fire over 'bid to block Sadiq Khan speech'
Len McCluskey's giant Unite union today came under fire over a failed attempt to stop Sadiq Khan speaking at Labour's annual rally.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/politics/unite-union-under-fire-over-bid-to-block-sadiq-khan-speech-a3641026.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 09:10 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 09:10 GMT   
IP:
1:8
Post by LDNnews: Belsize Park
Diego Costa heralded as 'one of the nicest guys in football' as John Terry says goodbye to Chelsea striker
19 moments that define Costa's rollercoaster relationship with Chelsea

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/diego-costa-heralded-as-one-of-the-nicest-guys-in-football-as-john-terry-says-goodbye-to-chelsea-a3640901.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Sep 2017 04:00 GMT   
Expires: 6 Oct 2017 04:00 GMT   
IP:
1:9
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Dealers handing out business cards to freshers at university halls in Manchester
Drug dealers have been handing out business cards near halls of residence at the University of Manchester.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/dealers-handing-out-business-cards-to-freshers-at-halls-in-manchester-a3640736.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 20:20 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 20:20 GMT   
IP:
1:10
Post by LDNnews: Finchley Road
Row erupts over plans to close 19th century hall to build Pentecostal church
A row is raging over plans to close and partially demolish a historic public building in south-west London to build a new Pentecostal church.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/row-erupts-over-plans-to-close-19th-century-hall-to-build-pentecostal-church-a3640081.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 18:10 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 18:10 GMT   
IP:
1:11
Post by LDNnews: West Hampstead
The beauty queen and a mysterious maritime death
Frank Vosper was born in December 1899, just two weeks before the turn of the century. He was born at 24 Gondar Gardens in West Hampstead - the house where Nobel prize-winning novelist Doris Lessing lived for more than 30 years before her death in 2013. Vosper’s father Percy was a surgeon at Kings College […]

http://westhampsteadlife.com/2017/09/20/the-beauty-queen-and-a-mysterious-maritime-death/20514
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 16:00 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 16:00 GMT   
IP:
1:12
Post by LDNnews: Chalk Farm
’He was the man’ - young artists on Basquiat
Young black artists celebrate Jean-Michel Basquiat’s impact on art.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-41345366
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 08:00 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 08:00 GMT   
IP:
1:13
Post by LDNnews: Belsize Park
Why the FA sacked Mark Sampson as manager of the England women's team
The FA's decision to sack Mark Sampson less than 24 hours after England's 6-0 win over Russia brings an end to a remarkable month for the governing body, the coach and the women's game.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/why-the-fa-sacked-mark-sampson-as-manager-of-the-england-women-s-team-a3639901.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Sep 2017 00:50 GMT   
Expires: 5 Oct 2017 00:50 GMT   
IP:
1:14
Post by LDNnews: St Johns Wood
Heathrow airport workers to vote on pre-Christmas strike
Unite members at Heathrow are to vote on whether to take industrial action in the run-up to Christmas in a row over holiday pay. The union says 4,000 members have rejected an offer.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4903798/Heathrow-airport-workers-vote-pre-Christmas-strike.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 24 Sep 2017 04:20 GMT   
Expires: 8 Oct 2017 04:20 GMT   
IP:
2:15
Post by LDNnews: Willesden Junction
Jeremy Corbyn: I'll become PM by giving Labour members more control over party
Jeremy Corbyn said his drive to give Labour members more control over the party will help him enter Downing Street.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/politics/jeremy-corbyn-ill-become-pm-by-giving-labour-members-more-control-over-party-a3641966.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 24 Sep 2017 04:10 GMT   
Expires: 8 Oct 2017 04:10 GMT   
IP:
2:16
Post by LDNnews: Colindale
Student builds world's largest Game Boy console
A Belgian student has built the world's largest functioning Game Boy console.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/techandgadgets/student-builds-worlds-largest-game-boy-console-a3640776.html
VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
 Upload an image
You can add an image to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 Add new information to this location
You can add text to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 
 Log on via Facebook
You can use a Facebook id to add material to this website.

Hampstead

Hampstead though now considered an integral part of London, has retained much of its village charm.

Hampstead is on a steep hill and the tube station platforms are the deepest on the London Underground network, at 58.5 metres below ground level. It has the deepest lift shaft on the Underground.

Although early records of Hampstead itself can be found in a grant by King Ethelred the Unready to the monastery of St. Peter's at Westminster (AD 986) and it is referred to in the Domesday Book (1086), the history of Hampstead is generally traced back to the 17th century.

Trustees of the Well started advertising the medicinal qualities of the chalybeate waters (water impregnated with iron) in 1700. Although Hampstead Wells was initially successful, its popularity declined in the 1800s due to competition with other London spas. The spa was demolished in 1882, although a water fountain was left behind.

Hampstead started to expand following the opening of the North London Railway in the 1860s (now on the London Overground), and expanded further after the tube station opened in 1907.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
6 Ellerdale Road:   6 Ellerdale Road is a house built by the Arts and Crafts movement architect Richard Norman Shaw for himself in the period 1874 to 1876.
An introduction to Hampstead by G.E. Mitton (1902):   This text originates from "The Fascination of Hampstead" by Geraldine Edith Mitton (published 1902)
Anna Freud Centre:   The Anna Freud Centre is a child mental health research, training and treatment centre.
Bracknell Way, NW3:   Bracknell Way is a small alleyway, usable only by pedestrians
Branch Hill Pond:   Branch Hill Pond which was fed from a spring which was also the main source of the Westbourne.
Bull and Bush:   The Old Bull and Bush is a Grade II listed public house near Hampstead Heath in London which gave its name to the music hall song ’Down at the old Bull and Bush’.
Devonshire House Preparatory School:   Devonshire House preparatory school is based in four large Victorian houses in Hampstead.
Everyman Cinema:   The Everyman, in Heath Street, Hampstead, opened as a cinema on 26 December 1933.
Finchley Road:   Finchley Road is on the Jubilee line, between West Hampstead and Swiss Cottage and on the Metropolitan line between Baker Street and Wembley Park.
Fitzjohn’s Primary School:   Fitzjohn’s Primary School is a community primary school, established in 1953.
Freud Museum:   The Freud Museum is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, who lived there with his family during the last year of his life.
Great Hollow Elm:   The Great Hollow Elm stood at the top of Hampstead Heath.
Hampstead:   Hampstead though now considered an integral part of London, has retained much of its village charm.
Hampstead Town:   This article first appeared in ’A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington’.
Hampstead tunnel:   Hampstead Tunnel, 1166 yards long, was built as part of the Hampstead Junction Railway, and opened on 2 January 1860.
Hare and Hounds:   The Hare and Hounds was the northernmost public house in Hampstead.
Keats House:   Keats House is a writer’s house museum in a house once occupied by the Romantic poet John Keats.
Netherhall House:   Netherhall House is a catered intercollegiate halls of residence for men, founded in 1952.
New West End:   New West End was created in the 1840s on the Finchley Road.
Pentameters Theatre:   The Pentameters Theatre was founded in 1968 and is 60-seat venue and is a fringe theatre, located above the Three Horseshoes public house in Hampstead.
Piecemeal building:   The infant River Westbourne crossed, what in 1900, was still a boggy field.
Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel:   The Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel is a place of worship and a member of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, the umbrella organisation for British Unitarians.
Rosslyn House:   Rosslyn (Roslyn) House, which stood between Wedderburn and Lyndhurst Roads, was one of the last of the famous old Hampstead houses to be destroyed.
Source of the Kilbourne:   The easternmost branch of the River Westbourne rises just south of the centre of Hampstead,
St John, Hampstead:   St John-at-Hampstead is a Church of England parish church dedicated to St John the Evangelist.
St Mary’s Church:   St Mary’s Chapel, now known as St Mary’s Church, is a Grade II* listed Roman Catholic church.
The Academy School:   The Academy School is an independent preparatory school for boys and girls aged between 6 and 13.
The Royal School, Hampstead:   The Royal School, Hampstead, was an independent girls’ day and boarding school. The school educated girls aged 3-16.
Two streams meet:   Somewhere beneath the basement of 16 Frognal, NW3 two tributaries of the River Westbourne meet.
University College School:   University College School, generally known as UCS, is an independent school charity situated in northwest London.
Whitestone Pond:   Whitestone Pond is the source of one of London’s lost rivers, the River Westbourne.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Hampstead station (1907):   Hampstead station pictured at its opening in 1907
Jack Straw's Castle (1907):   Jack Straw’s Castle Hotel, photographed in 1907.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
, NW3 · Akenside Road, NW3 · Alban House, NW3 · Arkwright Road, NW3 · Avenue Mansions, NW3 · Back Lane, NW3 · Back Lane, NW9 · Baynes Mews, NW3 · Belsize Court Garages, NW3 · Belsize Crescent, NW3 · Belsize Cresent, NW3 · Belsize Lane, NW3 · Belsize Park Mews, NW3 · Belsize Place, NW3 · Belsize Terrace, NW3 · Birchwood Drive, NW3 · Bracknell Gardens, NW3 · Bracknell Way, NW3 · Branch Hill, NW3 · Cannon Lane, NW3 · Cannon Place, NW3 · Carlingford Road, NW3 · Chesterford Gardens, NW3 · Christ Church, NW3 · Christchurch Hill, NW3 · Church Row, NW3 · Coach House Yard, NW3 · Columbas Drive, NW3 · Croft Way, NW3 · Croftway, NW3 · Daleham Gardens, NW3 · Daleham Mews, NW3 · Denning Road, NW3 · Downshire Hill, NW3 · East Heath Road, · East Heath Road, NW3 · Ellerdale Close, NW3 · Ellerdale Road, NW3 · Elm Row, NW3 · Falcon Lodge, NW3 · Ferncroft Avenue, NW3 · Finchley Road, NW3 · Finchley Road, NW6 · Firecrest Drive, NW3 · Fitzjohn’s Avenue, NW3 · Fitzjohn's Avenue, NW3 · Fitzjohns Avenue, NW3 · Fitzjohn’s Avenue, NW3 · Flask Cottages, NW3 · Flask Walk, NW3 · Fortune Green Road, NW3 · Frognal Close, NW3 · Frognal Lane, NW3 · Frognal Rise, NW3 · Frognal Way, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Gainsborough Gardens, NW3 · Gardnor Road, NW3 · Gayton Crescent, NW3 · Gayton Road, NW3 · Grange Gardens, NW3 · Greenaway Gardens, NW3 · Greenhill, NW3 · Grove Place, NW3 · Hampstead Grove, NW3 · Hampstead High Street, NW3 · Hampstead Hill Gardens, NW3 · Hampstead Square, NW3 · Heath Brow, NW3 · Heath Drive, NW3 · Heath Hurst Road, NW3 · Heath Side, NW3 · Heath Street, NW3 · Heath Villas, NW3 · Heysham Lane, NW3 · Holly Berry Lane, NW3 · Holly Bush Vale, NW3 · Holly Hill, NW3 · Holly Mount, NW3 · Holly Walk, NW3 · Judges’ Walk, NW3 · Keats Grove, NW3 · Kemplay Road, NW3 · Kidderpore Avenue, NW3 · Kidderpore Gardens, NW3 · Lakis Close, NW3 · Langland Gardens, NW3 · Lindfield Gardens, NW3 · Lower Terrace, NW3 · Lyndhurst Gardens, NW3 · Lyndhurst Road, NW3 · Lyndhurst Terrace, NW3 · Maresfield Gardens, NW3 · McCrone Mews, NW3 · Mount Vernon, NW3 · Netherhall Gardens, NW3 · Netherhall Way, NW3 · New End Square, NW3 · New End, NW3 · Nutley Terrace, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park, NW3 · Oak Hill Way, NW3 · Oakhill Avenue, NW3 · Old Brewery Mews, NW3 · Oriel Court, NW3 · Oriel Place, NW3 · Palace Court, NW3 · Perrins Court, NW3 · Perrins Walk, NW3 · Pilgrims Lane, NW3 · Pilgrims Place, NW3 · Prince Arthur Mews, NW3 · Prince Arthur Road, NW3 · Princess Mews, NW3 · Redington Gardens, NW3 · Redington Road, NW3 · Rosecroft Avenue, NW3 · Rosslyn Hill, NW3 · Rosslyn Mews, NW3 · Rudall Crescent, NW3 · Shepherd’s Path, NW3 · Shepherd's Path, NW3 · Shepherds Walk, NW3 · Spaniards Road, NW3 · Spedan Close, NW3 · Streatley Place, NW3 · Studholme Court, NW3 · Telegraph Hill, NW3 · Templewood Avenue, NW3 · Templewood Gardens, NW3 · The Gables, NW3 · The Mount, NW3 · Thurlow Road, NW3 · Upper Terrace, NW3 · Vale of Health, NW3 · Vane Close, NW3 · Village Mount, NW3 · Wedderburn Road, NW3 · Well Road, NW3 · Well Walk, NW3 · Whitestone Lane, NW3 · Willoughby Road, NW3 · Willow Road, NW3 · Windmill Hill, NW3 · Yorkshire Grey Place, NW3 ·


USING THIS MATERIAL IN OTHER ARTICLES


COMMENTS

Print-friendly version of this page

Links

Hampstead
Facebook Page
Belsize Park
Facebook Page
Finchley Road
Facebook Page
Swiss Cottage
Facebook Page
Hidden London
Histor­ically inclined look at the capital’s obscure attractions
Londonist
All-encompassing website
British History Online
Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.
Time Out
Listings magazine

Maps


John Rocque Map of Hampstead (1762).
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map of Hampstead covers an area stretching from the edge in the northwest of present-day Dollis Hill to Islington in the southeast.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
1 


COPYRIGHT TERMS:
Unless a source is explicitedly stated, text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Articles may be a remixes of various Wikipedia articles plus work by the website authors - original Wikipedia source can generally be accessed under the same name as the main title. This does not affect its Creative Commons attribution.

Maps upon this website are in the public domain because they are mechanical scans of public domain originals, or – from the available evidence – are so similar to such a scan or photocopy that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in public domain for the following reason:
Public domain Maps used are in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights.

This tag is designed for use where there may be a need to assert that any enhancements (eg brightness, contrast, colour-matching, sharpening) are in themselves insufficiently creative to generate a new copyright. It can be used where it is unknown whether any enhancements have been made, as well as when the enhancements are clear but insufficient. For usage, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.