Clapham RoadStockwell is a district situated a couple of miles south-east of Charing Cross.
in 1930, showing Stockwell station. Binfield Road
runs off to the right.
Stockwell station was ceremonially opened on 4 November 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), as the most southerly station on the City & South London Railway (C&SLR) – London’s first deep-level tube railway. Passenger services began just over one month later on 18 December 1890.Licence:
The station was built with a single island platform with tracks on either side, an arrangement rarely used underground on the network, but which exists today at Clapham North and Clapham Common. Stockwell’s original platform was further north than the new ones, and trains pass them today. The other terminus of the C&SLR line was King William Street in the City of London. In 1900, when an extension to Clapham Common was opened, Stockwell ceased to be a terminus. A flight of stairs at the south end of the platform was also added to take passengers to a subway that passed over the new northbound tunnel and joined the lift shaft at a higher level.
The original building, designed by T. P. Figgis, was similar to – but larger than – the existing surface building at Kennington with a domed roof to the original lift shaft. The two lifts each carried 50 people to and from the platforms until their replacement by escalators in the mid-1920s. The station was modernised in advance of the 1926 extension from Clapham Common to Morden (Morden Extension). A new surface building was constructed on the original site. The original station platforms were closed on 29 November 1923 and platforms sited to the north of the original were opened on 1 December 1924. At the same time the platforms were rebuilt to a larger diameter – and with a single platform in each tunnel – south of the original station tunnel.
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Stockwell probably got the second half of its name from a local well; the other half is from stoc
, which was Old English for a tree trunk or post. From the thirteenth to the start of the nineteenth century, Stockwell was a rural manor at the edge of London. It included market gardens and John Tradescant's botanical garden – commemorated in Tradescant Road
, which was built over it in 1880, and in a memorial outside St Stephen's church. In the nineteenth century it developed as an elegant middle class suburb. Residents included the artist Arthur Rackham, who was born in South Lambeth
Road in 1867, moving with his family to Albert Square
when he was 15.
Stockwell station was opened on 4 November 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), as the most southerly station on the City & South London Railway (C&SLR) - London's first deep level tube railway. Passenger services began just over one month later on 18 December 1890.
Its social and architectural fortunes in the twentieth century were more mixed. The area immediately around Stockwell tube station was extensively rebuilt following the Second World War, and the original domed tube station was replaced first in the 1920s, then again with the opening of the Victoria line in 1971.
The area also has much social housing; the main estates are Lansdowne Green
, Stockwell park, Studley, Spurgeon, Mursell and Stockwell Gardens
. However, many remnants of the area's nineteenth century grandeur can be found in the side and back streets of Stockwell, notably in the Stockwell Park Conservation Area, mostly built between 1825 and 1840 and centred on Stockwell Park Road
, Stockwell Park Crescent
, Durand Gardens
, and Albert Square
Stockwell and neighbouring South Lambeth
are home to one of the UK's biggest Portuguese communities, known as 'Little Portugal'. Most of the local Portuguese people originate from Madeira and Lisbon and have established many cafes, restaurants, bakeries, neighbourhood associations and delicatessens. Stockwell is also home to many people of Caribbean and West African origin. They are also well represented in the local population, and cafés, grocers, barbers' shops and salons run by people from these communities are scattered around Stockwell.