New Inn Passage (1901)

Image dated 1891

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MAPPING:1750180018301860190019302017Fullscreen map
Photo taken in a southeasterly direction · Holborn · WC2A · Contributed by The Underground Map
April
3
2014
Click to enlarge image.
This photo from 1901 shows buildings in New Inn Passage, Houghton Street, then called the Claire Market Slum, which was demolished as part of the Aldwych-Kingsway improvement scheme in 1905.

   Contemporary view of the area - viewing direction is appoximate

The area was part of the 'Clare Market Slum', a cluster of narrow, dirty streets lined with butchers' and greengrocers' shops.

Clare Market was originally centred on a small market building constructed by Lord Clare in c.1657, but the retail area spread through a maze of narrow interconnecting streets.

Butchers would slaughter sheep and cattle for sale. An area was set aside for Jews to slaughter kosher meat. The market mostly sold meat, although fish and vegetables were also sold. An early theatre was in Gibbon's Tennis Court, in the Clare Market area.

A club of artists, including William Hogarth, met at the Bull's Head Tavern in the market.

The area was not affected by the Great Fire of London, and the decrepit Elizabethan buildings survived until the area, by then a slum, was redeveloped by the London County Council in around 1900 to create the Aldwych and Kingsway.

Parts of the London School of Economics now occupy the site, and the name is commemorated in an academic journal published by the university, entitled The Clare Market Review. Furthermore, Ralf Dahrendorf, the former director of the LSE, chose the title Baron Dahrendorf of Clare Market when he was made a life peer in 1993. One of the main buildings at the centre of the LSE Campus is called the Clare Market Building.

Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence

VIEW THE HOLBORN AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLBORN AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLBORN AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLBORN AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HOLBORN AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Go to Holborn

Holborn

Holborn is both an area and also the name of the area's principal street, known as High Holborn between St. Giles's High Street and Gray's Inn Road and then Holborn Viaduct between Holborn Circus and Newgate Street.

The area's first mention is in a charter of Westminster Abbey, by King Edgar, dated to 959. This mentions 'the old wooden church of St Andrew' (St Andrew, Holborn). The name Holborn may be derived from the Middle English hol for hollow, and bourne, a brook, referring to the River Fleet as it ran through a steep valley to the east.

It was at first outside the City's jurisdiction and a part of Ossulstone Hundred in Middlesex. The original Bars were the boundary of the City of London from 1223, when the City's jurisdiction was extended beyond the Walls, at Newgate, into the suburb here, as far as the point where the Bars where erected, until 1994 when the border moved to the junction of Chancery Lane. In 1394 the Ward of Farringdon Without was created, but only the south side of Holborn was under its jurisdiction with some minor properties, such as parts of Furnival's Inn, on the northern side.

The Holborn District was created in 1855, consisting of the civil parishes and extra-parochial places of Glasshouse Yard, Saffron Hill, Hatton Garden, Ely Rents and Ely Place, St Andrew Holborn Above the Bars with St George the Martyr and St Sepulchre. The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was created in 1900, consisting of the former area of the Holborn District and the St Giles District, excluding Glasshouse Yard and St Sepulchre, which went to the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury. The Metropolitan Borough of Holborn was abolished in 1965 and its area now forms part of the London Borough of Camden.

In the 18th century, Holborn was the location of the infamous Mother Clap's molly house but in the modern era High Holborn has become a centre for entertainment venues to suit more general tastes: 22 inns or taverns were recorded in the 1860s and the Holborn Empire, originally Weston's Music Hall, stood between 1857 and 1960, when it was pulled down after structural damage sustained in the Blitz. The theatre premièred the first full-length feature film in 1914, The World, the Flesh and the Devil, a 50-minute melodrama filmed in Kinemacolour.

Charles Dickens took up residence in Furnival's Inn, on the site of the former Prudential building designed by Alfred Waterhouse now named Holborn Bars. Dickens put his character Pip, in Great Expectations, in residence at Barnard's Inn opposite, now occupied by Gresham College. Staple Inn, notable as the promotional image for Old Holborn tobacco, is nearby. The three of these were Inns of Chancery. The most northerly of the Inns of Court, Gray's Inn, is in Holborn, as is Lincoln's Inn: the area has been associated with the legal professions since mediaeval times, and the name of the local militia (now Territorial Army unit, the Inns of Court & City Yeomanry) still reflects that. Subsequently the area diversified and become recognisable as the modern street.

A plaque stands at number 120 commemorating Thomas Earnshaw's invention of the Marine chronometer, which facilitated long-distance travel. At the corner of Hatton Garden was the old family department store of Gamages. Until 1992, the London Weather Centre was located in the street. The Prudential insurance company relocated in 2002. The Daily Mirror offices used to be directly opposite it, but the site is now occupied by Sainsbury's head office.

Hatton Garden, the centre of the diamond trade, was leased to a favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Christopher Hatton at the insistence of the Queen to provide him with an income. Behind the Prudential Building lies the Anglo-Catholic church of St Alban the Martyr.

In the early 21st century, Holborn has become the site of new offices and hotels: for example, the old neoclassical Pearl Assurance building near the junction with Kingsway was converted into an hotel in 1999.

Holborn station is located at the junction of High Holborn and Kingsway. Situated on the Piccadilly and Central Lines, it is the only station common to the two lines, although the two lines also cross each other three times in West London.

The station was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR, now the Piccadilly Line) on 15 December 1906 with the name Holborn (Kingsway). Kingsway was a new road, cutting south from High Holborn through an area of cleared slums to Strand. The suffix was dropped from tube maps in the 1960s.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Ackermann’s:   Rudolph Ackermann (20 April 1764 in Stollberg, Saxony – 30 March 1834 in Finchley) was an Anglo-German bookseller, inventor, lithographer, publisher and businessman.
Aldwych:   Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground; formerly a branch line of the Piccadilly Line.
Courtauld Institute of Art:   The Courtauld Institute of Art is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art.
Holborn:   Holborn is both an area and also the name of the area's principal street, known as High Holborn between St. Giles's High Street and Gray's Inn Road and then Holborn Viaduct between Holborn Circus and Newgate Street.
Shipley's Drawing School:   101 The Strand was an art school from 1750 until 1806.
Temple:   Temple is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster, on the Victoria Embankment. It is the nearest tube station for King's College London and the London School of Economics.
Temple Bar:   Temple Bar is the point in London where Fleet Street, City of London, becomes the Strand, Westminster, and where the City of London traditionally erected a barrier to regulate trade into the city.
Waterloo Bridge:   Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, England between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Blackmoore Street (1902):   This photo depicts Blackmoor Street which was in the Drury Lane slum, with Clare Court on the left
Houghton Street (1906):   A greengrocer's on the corner of Houghton Street and Clare Market (behind The Strand) in 1906 just before demolition.
Strand (1890s):   The Strand in the 1890s
Wild Street (1902):   Wild Street, in the Covent Garden area, was on the edge of the Kingsway improvements which would utterly transform the area in the following years.
Wych Street:   Wych Street was a street in London, roughly where Australia House now stands on Aldwych. It ran west from the church of St Clement Danes on the Strand to a point towards the southern end of Drury Lane.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Africa House, WC2B · Aldwych, WC2 · Arundel Street, WC2R · Atkin Building, WC1R · Australia House, WC2B · Beaumont Buildings, WC2B · Bedford Row, WC1R · Bell Yard, WC2A · Bow St Covent Garden, WC2E · Bull Inn Court, WC2R · Burleigh Street, WC2E · Carey Street, WC2A · Catherine Street, WC2B · Catton Street, WC1R · Chancery Lane, WC2A · Chichester Rents, WC2A · Clare Market, WC2A · Clements Inn, WC2A · Coptic Street, WC1A · Crown Court, WC2B · Dane Street, WC1R · Devereux Court, WC2R · Drury Lane, WC2B · Eagle Street, WC1R · Essex Court, EC4Y · Essex Street, WC2R · Exchange Court, WC2R · Exeter Street, WC2E · Field Court, WC1R · Fisher Street, WC1R · Fountain Court, EC4Y · Fulwood Place, WC1V · Garden Court, EC4Y · Gate Street, WC2A · Grays Inn Place, WC1R · Grays Inn Square Chambers, WC1R · Grays Inn Square, WC1R · Great Queen Street, WC2B · Hand Court, WC1V · Hardwicke Building, WC2A · High Holborn, WC1V · Holborn, WC1V · Houghton Street, WC2A · Jockeys Fields, WC1R · Jubilee Market Hall Tavistock Court, WC2E · Kean Street, WC2B · Kingsway, WC2B · Lancaster Place, WC2E · Lincolns Inn Fields, WC2A · Lion Court, WC1V · Little Essex Street, WC2R · Little Turnstile, WC1V · London Silver Vaults, WC2A · Maltravers Street, WC2R · Milford Lane, WC2R · Museum Street, WC1A · New Oxford Street, WC1A · New Square, WC2A · Newton Street, WC2B · North East Wing Bush House, WC2B · North West Wing Bush House, WC2B · Old Buildings, WC2A · Old Square, WC2A · Parker Street, WC2B · Portsmouth Street, WC2A · Portugal Street, WC2A · Princeton Street, WC1R · Procter Street, WC1V · Proctor Street, WC1V · Quality Court, WC2A · Raymond Buildings, WC1R · Red Lion Square, WC1R · Red Lion Street, WC1R · Russell Street, WC2B · Sandland Street, WC1R · Sardinia House, WC2A · Sardinia Street, WC2A · Savoy Court, WC2R · Savoy Hill, WC2R · Savoy Place, WC2N · Savoy Place, WC2R · Savoy Street, WC2E · Savoy Street, WC2R · Sheffield Street, WC2A · Sicilian Avenue, WC1A · Silver Vaults, WC2A · South East Wing Bush House, WC2B · South Square, WC1R · Southampton Buildings, WC1V · Southampton Buildings, WC2A · St Clements Lane, WC2A · St Giles House, WC2B · Star Yard, WC2A · Stedham Place, WC1A · Stone Buildings, WC2A · Strand, WC2A · Strand, WC2B · Strand, WC2N · Strand, WC2R · Surrey Street, WC2R · Tavistock Street, WC2E · Temple Pier, WC2R · Temple Place, WC2R · The Arcade, WC2B · The Australia Centre, WC2B · The Strand, WC2N · The Strand, WC2R · Verulam Buildings, WC1R · Victoria Embankment, WC2R · Victoria House, WC1A · Warwick Court, WC1R · Wellington Street, WC2E · Wellington Terrace, W2 · West Central Street, WC1A · Wild Court, WC2B · Wild Street, WC2B · Yorkshire Grey Yard, WC1R ·


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Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
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John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
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The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
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Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
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Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
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Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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