Temple Bar

Place of Interest in/near City of London, existing until 1878

 HOME  ·  ARTICLE  MAP  STREETS  BLOG  CONTACT 
34.229.194.198 
100 Bishopsgate · 24 Cloth Fair (1890) · 99 Bishopsgate · Adam Street · Addle Hill · Adelaide House · Adelphi Terrace · Albion Way · Aldermanbury Square · Aldermans Walk · Aldgate · Aldgate Bus Garage · Aldwych · Aldwych · Aldwych · All Hallows Lane · Allhallows Lane · Alsatia · Amen Court · Andrewes Highwalk · Andrewes House · Angel Court · Angel Street · Apothecary Street · Appold Street · Arthur Street · Arundel Street · Ashentree Court · Austin Friars · Ave Maria Lane · Ball Court · Baltic St West · Baltic Street West · Bank · Bank of England · Barbican · Barbican Centre Silk Street · Barbican Highwalks · Barbican · Bartholomew Close · Bartholomew Lane · Bartholomew Passage · Bartholomew Place · Basinghall Avenue · Basinghall Avenue · Basinghall Street · Bassishaw Highwalk · Bastion Highwalk · Bear Alley · Beech Street · Bell Inn Yard · Bell Wharf Lane · Bells Alley · Bengal Court · Billiter Square · Birchin Lane · Bishop’s Court · Bishopsgate Arcade · Bishopsgate Churchyard · Bishopsgate · Bishopsgate · Black Friars Lane · Black Friars Pier · Blackfriars · Blackfriars Bridge railway station · Blackfriars Bridge · Blackfriars Lane · Blackfriars Underpass · Blackfriars Underpass · Blackmoore Street (1902) · Bleeding Heart Yard · Blomfield Street · Bloomsbury Square · Bolt Court · Boswell Street · Botolph Alley · Botolph Lane · Bouverie Street · Bow Churchyard · Bow Lane · Brandon Mews · Bread Street · Breams Buildings · Brewers Hall Garden · Brewers Hall Gardens · Brick Court · Bride Court · Bride Lane · Bridewell Place · Bridge Walk · Bridgewater Square · Broad Street · Broad Street Place · Broadgate Circle · Broadgate · Broken Wharf · Brushfield Street · Bryer Court · Bucklersbury House Walbrook · Bucklersbury · Bulls Head Passage · Burgon Street · Bury Street · Bush Lane · Byward Street · Camomile Street · Cannon Bridge · Cannon Street · Cannon Street · Cannon Street · Carey Lane · Carlisle Avenue · Carmelite Street · Carter Lane · Carter Lane · Carting Lane · Castle Court · Catherine Street · Cavendish Court · Central Markets · Chancery Lane · Chancery Lane · Change Alley · Charing Cross · Chartered Accountants Hall · Charterhouse Street · Charterhouse Street · Charterhouse Street · Cheapside · Christopher Street · Church Entry · City North · City of London · City Temple · City Thameslink · Clare Market · Clement’s Inn · Clements Lane · Cliffords Inn Passage · Cliffords Inn · Cloak Lane · Cloth Court · Cloth Fair · Cloth Street · Clothworkers Hall · Coleman Street · Coleman Street · College Hill · College Street · Cooper’s Row · Coopers Row · Copthall Avenue · Copthall Avenue · Corbet Court · Cornhill · Courtauld Institute of Art · Cousin Lane · Covent Garden · Cowcross Street · Crane Court · Creechurch Lane · Creed Court · Creed Lane · Cripplegate Street · Crown Court · Crown Office Row · Crown Place · Crutched Friars · Cullum Street · Cursitor Street · Cursitor Street · Custom House Walkway · Cutler Street · Cutler Street · Cutlers Gardens Arcade · Dark Horse Walk · Deans Court · Defoe House · Devereux Court · Devonshire Row · Devonshire Square · Devonshire Square · Distaff Lane · Doctor Johnsons Buildings · Dominion Street · Dorset Rise · Drive Johnsons Buildings · Dukes Place · Dukes Place · Dunster Court · Dyer’s Buildings · Dyers Buildings · Eagle Street · Earl Street · East Central Markets · East Harding Street · East Market Building · East Market · East Passage · East Poultrey Avenue · East Poultry Avenue · Eastcheap · Eldon Street · Ely Place · Ely Place · Embankment · Embankment · Endell Street · Essex Court · Exchange Arcade · Exchange Place · Exchange Square · Exchange Square · Exchange Steps · Exeter Street · Falcon Court · Falcon Point Piazza · Fann Street · Fann Street · Farringdon · Farringdon Road · Farringdon Road · Farringdon Road · Farringdon Road · Farringdon Street · Farringdon Street · Farringdon Street · Fenchurch Avenue · Fenchurch Buildings · Fenchurch Place · Fenchurch Street · Fenchurch Street · Ferroners House Shaftesbury Place · Fetter Lane · Finch Lane · Finsbury Avenue · Finsbury Circus Gardens · Finsbury Circus · Fish St Hill · Fish Street Hill · Fleet Place · Fleet Street looking east (c.1920) · Fleet Street · Fleet Street · Fore Street (1890) · Fore Street Avenue · Fore Street · Fortune Street · Foster Lane · Founders Court · Fountain Court · Fredericks Place · French Ordinary Court · Friday Street · Friday Street · Furnival Street · Garden Court · Garlick Hill · Garrett Street · George Court · George Yard · Gilbert Bridge · Gilbert House · Giltspur Street · Glasshouse Yard · Gloucester Court · Godliman Street · Golden Lane Estate · Golden Lane · Golden Lane · Goldsmith Street · Goring Street · Goswell Road · Gough Square · Gracechurch Street · Grand Avenue · Grant’s Quay Wharf · Gravel Lane · Great Conduit · Great New Street · Great Russell Street · Great St Helen’s · Great St Helens · Great St Thomas Apostle · Great St Thomas · Great Swan Alley · Great Tower Street · Great Turnstile · Great Winchester Street · Gresham Street · Grocers’ Hall Court · Groveland Court · Guildhall Art Gallery · Guildhall Buildings · Guildhall Yard · Gunpowder Square · Gutter Lane · Hackney LB · Half Moon Court · Hanseatic Walk · Hanseatic Walk · Harcourt Buildings · Hare Court · Hare Place · Harp Lane · Harrow Place · Hart Street · Hat and Mitre Court · Hatch End Millenium Bridge · Hayne Street · Hearn Street · Heneage Lane · Heton Gardens · High Holborn · High Holborn · High Holborn · High Timber Street · Hind Court · Holborn · Holborn Viaduct · Holborn · Holland Street · Honey Lane · Hood Court · Hopton Street · Hopton's Almshouses · Hosier Lane · Houghton Square · Houghton Street (1906) · Houghton Street · Houndsditch · Howard Street · Hungerford Stairs · Idol Lane · India Street · Inner Temple Gardens · Inner Temple Lane · Invicta Plaza · Ireland Yard · Irongate House · Ironmonger Lane · Ironmongerrial Lane · Ironmongers Hall Shaftesbury Place · Ivybridge Lane · Jewry Street · John Adam Street · John Carpenter Street · Kemble Street · King Edward Street · King Street · King William Street · King William Street · King’s Arms Yard · King’s Bench Walk · Kinghorn Street · Kings Arms Yard · Kings Bench Walk · Kingsgate Street · Kingsway · Knightrider Court · Knightrider Street · Lamb Building · Lamb’s Conduit Passage · Lambeth Hill · Lauderdale Tower · Laurence Pountney Hill · Laurence Pountney Lane · Laurence Pountney Lane · Lawrence Lane · Leadenhall Market · Leadenhall Market · Leadenhall Place · Leadenhall Place · Leadenhall Street · Leadenhall Street · Leadenhall Street · Leadenhall Street · Leather Lane · Lime Street · Limeburner Lane · Lincoln’s Inn Fields · Lincoln’s Inn Fields · Lindsey Street · Lisle’s Tennis Court · Little Britain · Little Britain · Little New Street · Little Trinity Lane · Liverpool St · Liverpool Street · Liverpool Street · Lloyd’s Avenue · Lloyds Avenue · Lombard Court · Lombard Street · London Central Markets · London Street · London Wall Buildings · London Wall · London Wall · London Wall · London Wall · London Wall · Long Lane · Lothbury · Lovat Lane · Love Lane · Lower Thames Street · Ludgate Broadway · Ludgate Circus (1873) · Ludgate Circus · Ludgate Hill · Ludgate Square · Magpie Alley · Mansell Street · Mansion House · Mansion House · Mansion House Place · Manson House Place · Maple Leaf Walk · Mark Lane · Martin Lane · Martlett Court · Masons Avenue · Masters House Temple Church · Melbourne Place · Middle Street · Middle Temple Lane · Middlesex Street · Milk Street · Millennium Bridge · Millennium Bridge · Milton Court · Milton Street · Mincing Lane · Minories · Minories · Minster Court · Minster Pavement · Minsters Pavement · Mitre Avenue · Mitre Court Buildings · Mitre Court · Mitre Square · Mitre Street · Monkwell Square · Monmouth House · Montreal Place · Monument · Monument (1890) · Monument Gdns · Monument Street · Monument to the Great Fire of London · Moorfields Highwalk · Moorfields · Moorgate · Moorgate Place · Moorgate · Moorgate · Munster Court · Muscovy Street · New Bridge Street · New Broad Street · New Change · New Court · New Fetter Lane · New Fetter Lane · New Inn Passage (1901) · New London Street · New Square Passage · New St Square · New Street Square · New Street · New Union Street · Newbury Street · Newgate Street · Newgate Street · Nicholas Lane · Nicholas Lane · Noble Street · Norfolk Street · Northumberland Avenue · Norton Folgate · Norton Folgate · Norwich Street · Oat Lane · Octagon Arcade · Old Bailey · Old Bailey · Old Barge House Alley · Old Billingsgate Walk · Old Broad Street · Old Broad Street · Old Broad Street · Old Change Court · Old Jewry · Old Mitre Court · Old Seacoal Lane · One Ropemaker Street · Orange Street
MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302019Fullscreen map
Place of Interest · City of London · EC4Y · Contributed by The Underground Map
MARCH
27
2018

Temple Bar is the point in London where Fleet Street, City of London, becomes the Strand, Westminster, and where the City of London traditionally erected a barrier to regulate trade into the city.

In the Middle Ages, the authority of the City of London Corporation reached beyond the city’s ancient walls in several places (the Liberties of London). To regulate trade into the city, barriers were erected on the major roads wherever the true boundary was a substantial distance from the old gatehouse. Temple Bar was the most famous of these, since traffic between London (England’s prime commercial centre) and Westminster (the political centre) passed through it. Its name comes from the Temple Church, which has given its name to a wider area south of Fleet Street, the Temple, once belonging to the Knights Templar but now home to two of the legal profession’s Inns of Court.

Commissioned by King Charles II, and designed by Sir Christopher Wren, the fine arch of Portland stone was constructed between 1669 and 1672. Rusticated, it is a two-storey structure consisting of one wide central arch for the road traffic, flanked on both sides by narrower arches for pedestrians. On the upper part, four statues celebrate the Stuart monarchy: on the west side Charles II is shown with his father Charles I whose parents James I and Anne of Denmark are depicted on the east side. During the 18th century, the heads of traitors were mounted on pikes and exhibited on the roof.

The other seven principal gateways to London (Ludgate, Newgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate and Aldgate) had all been demolished by 1800, but Temple Bar remained despite its impediment to the ever-growing traffic. The upper storey room was leased to the neighbouring banking house of Child & Co for records storage.

It was discovered that the keystones had dropped in 1874. In 1878 the City of London Corporation, eager to widen the road but unwilling to destroy so historic a monument, dismantled it piece-by-piece over an 11-day period and stored its 2,700 stones carefully.

In 1880, at the instigation of his wife, Valerie Susan Meux, the brewer Henry Meux bought the stones and re-erected the arch as a gateway at his house, Theobalds Park, between Enfield and Cheshunt in Hertfordshire. There it remained, incongruously sitting in a clearing in a wood, from 1878 until 2003.

In 1984, it had been purchased by the Temple Bar Trust from the Meux Trust for £1. It was carefully dismantled and returned on 500 pallets to the City of London, where it was painstakingly re-erected as an entrance to the Paternoster Square redevelopment just north of St Paul’s Cathedral. It opened to the public on 10 November 2004.

As the most important entrance to London from Westminster, it has long been the custom that the monarch stop at Temple Bar before entering the City of London, so that the Lord Mayor may offer him or her the City’s pearl-encrusted Sword of State as a token of loyalty. The historic ceremony has often featured in art and literature.

Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence

Citations, sources, links and further reading

Histor­ically inclined look at the capital’s obscure attractions
A wander through London, street by street
All-encompassing website
Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.
Facebook Page
Facebook Page
Facebook Page
Facebook Page


LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 24 Feb 2019 06:30 GMT   
IP:
3:1:3212
Post by LDNnews: Russell Square
Women’s Continental League Cup final: Arsenal 0-0 Manchester City (2-4 pens)
Manchester City win the Women’s League Cup for the third time, beating Arsenal in a penalty shootout at Bramall Lane.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/47294347

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 18:20 GMT   
IP:
3:2:3212
Post by LDNnews: Covent Garden
Eltham crash: Man and woman in 70s killed after van in police chase crashes into car in south-east London
A man and woman in their 70s have been killed after the car they were in was hit by a van which was being chased by police in south-east London.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/eltham-crash-man-and-woman-in-70s-killed-after-van-in-police-chase-crashed-into-car-a4074571.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 17:40 GMT   
IP:
3:3:3212
Post by LDNnews: Charing Cross
Two pensioners dead and one man arrested following Eltham police chase

Two pensioners have died after being hit by a van in Eltham overnight.


https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17454536.eltham-police-chase-crash-leaves-two-pensioners-dead-man-arrested/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 17:40 GMT   
IP:
3:4:3212
Post by LDNnews: Chancery Lane
Heading out? Here’s a traffic update

Heading out this morning? This will help to get you moving in the right direction.


https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17454617.heading-out-heres-a-traffic-update/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 17:40 GMT   
IP:
3:5:3212
Post by LDNnews: St Pauls
How you can help alleviate the insect crisis
The alarming reports that 40% of insect species could become extinct in a few decades should prompt gardeners to do their bit to help alleviate the ensuing crisis.

https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17447152.how-you-can-help-alleviate-the-insect-crisis/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 17:40 GMT   
IP:
3:6:3212
Post by LDNnews: Southwark
’I heard just a loud bang’ - Neighbours react after police chase crash leaves elderly couple dead

Neighbours have described the moment they heard a crash which left an elderly couple dead.


https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17454642.neighbours-react-after-eltham-police-chase-crash-leaves-two-dead/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 17:30 GMT   
IP:
3:7:3212
Post by LDNnews: Blackfriars
EPL table, fixtures, results, latest scores and Premier League live games on TV - gameweek 27
West Ham kicked-started the gameweek 27 of the Premier League season with a victory over Fulham, while Watford won away at Cardiff City, but focus this weekend centres on the top of the table.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/epl-table-fixtures-results-latest-scores-and-premier-league-live-games-on-tv-gameweek-26-a4074661.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Feb 2019 01:40 GMT   
IP:
3:8:3212
Post by LDNnews: Russell Square
Premiership: Gloucester 30-24 Saracens
Gloucester beat the Premiership leaders for the second week in succession as Saracens slip to defeat at Kingsholm.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/rugby-union/47295354

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 15:30 GMT   
IP:
3:9:3212
Post by LDNnews: Covent Garden
Millionaire residents asked to pay 'mansion tax' towards council services
Kensington and Chelsea council is planning to introduce a voluntary "mansion tax" asking its millionaire homeowners to donate to support other residents.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/millionaire-residents-asked-to-pay-mansion-tax-towards-council-services-a4074051.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 15:20 GMT   
IP:
3:10:3212
Post by LDNnews: Charing Cross
Government frees funding for tram safety body after local MP’s campaign

The Government has released funding for a new tram safety body following years of campaigning by a Croydon MP.


https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17452957.government-frees-funding-for-tram-safety-body-after-local-mps-campaign/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 15:20 GMT   
IP:
3:11:3212
Post by LDNnews: Chancery Lane
Down with this ’sword’ of thing: Cops seize sword and throwing knives in Bexleyheath

Cops in Crook Log said they had to "re-educate" a man in Bexleyheath after seizing a number of prohibited weapons from his home.


https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17452963.police-and-border-agents-seize-weapons-at-bexleyheath-address/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 15:20 GMT   
IP:
3:12:3212
Post by LDNnews: St Pauls



https://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/17453093.improving-healthcare-together-22m-spent-on-big-nhs-consultation/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 14:40 GMT   
IP:
3:13:3212
Post by LDNnews: Southwark
When is the Uefa Europa League last 16 draw? Can I watch it on TV? Time, date, channel and more
The draw for the last 16 of the Uefa Europa League is almost upon us, as some of Europe’s leading clubs look to continue their path towards the final in Baku.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/when-is-the-uefa-europa-league-last-16-draw-can-i-watch-it-on-tv-time-date-channel-and-more-a4071031.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 14:40 GMT   
IP:
3:14:3212
Post by LDNnews: Blackfriars
Latest betting tips, head to head history and kick-off time for Saturday’s Turf Moor match
Latest betting tips, head to head history and kick-off time for Saturday’s Turf Moor match

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/tottenham/burnley-vs-tottenham-premier-league-2019-score-prediction-odds-live-stream-tv-team-news-tickets-a4074126.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Feb 2019 06:20 GMT   
IP:
3:15:3212
Post by LDNnews: Barbican
Arsenal 3-0 (3-1) Bate Borisov: Gunners ease into Europa League last 16
Arsenal reach the last 16 of the Europa League with a comfortable second-leg victory over Bate Borisov at Emirates Stadium.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/47303991

VIEW THE CITY OF LONDON AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE CITY OF LONDON AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE CITY OF LONDON AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE CITY OF LONDON AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE CITY OF LONDON AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

City of London

The City of London constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the conurbation has since grown far beyond its borders.

As the City's boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of Greater London, though it remains a notable part of central London. It holds city status in its own right and is also a separate ceremonial county.

It is widely referred to as 'The City' (often written on maps as City and differentiated from the phrase 'the city of London') or 'the Square Mile' as it is 1.12 square miles in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which continues a notable history of being largely based in the City.

The local authority for the City, the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It also has responsibilities and ownerships beyond the City's boundaries. The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from (and much older than) the Mayor of London.

The City is a major business and financial centre, ranking as the world's leading centre of global finance. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, and continues to be a major meeting point for businesses.

The City had a resident population of about 7000 in 2011 but over 300,000 people commute to it and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. The legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City - especially in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple - fall within the City of London boundary.
Print-friendly version of this page

Maps


Central London, north east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
1 



COPYRIGHT TERMS:
Unless a source is explicitedly stated, text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Articles may be a remixes of various Wikipedia articles plus work by the website authors - original Wikipedia source can generally be accessed under the same name as the main title. This does not affect its Creative Commons attribution.

Maps upon this website are in the public domain because they are mechanical scans of public domain originals, or - from the available evidence - are so similar to such a scan or photocopy that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in public domain for the following reason:
Public domain Maps used are in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights.

This tag is designed for use where there may be a need to assert that any enhancements (eg brightness, contrast, colour-matching, sharpening) are in themselves insufficiently creative to generate a new copyright. It can be used where it is unknown whether any enhancements have been made, as well as when the enhancements are clear but insufficient. For usage, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.