An introduction to Hampstead by G.E. Mitton (1902)

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Article · Hampstead · NW3 · Contributed by The Underground Map
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2016


This text originates from "The Fascination of Hampstead" by Geraldine Edith Mitton (published 1902)

The name of this borough is clearly derived from "ham," or "hame," a home; and "steede," a place, and has consequently the same meaning as homestead. Park, in a note in his book on Hampstead, says that the "p" is a modern interpolation, scarcely found before the seventeenth century, and not in general use until the eighteenth.

Lysons says that the Manor of Hampstead was given in 986 a.d. by King Ethelred to the church at Westminster, and that this gift was confirmed by Edward the Confessor; but there is an earlier charter of King Edgar of uncertain date, probably between 963 and 978. It granted the land at Hamstede to one Mangoda, and the limits of the grant are thus stated: "From Sandgate along the road to Foxhanger; from the Hanger west to Watling Street north along the street to the Cucking Pool; from the Cucking Pool east to Sandgate."

Professor Hales, who thinks, whether genuine or not, this charter is certainly of value, interprets Sandgate as North End, Foxhanger as Haverstock Hill, Watling Street as Edgeware Road, and the Cucking Pool he concludes was in the marshy ground at the north-west corner of the parish.

This earlier charter is only interesting because it carries the history one point further back; the gift to the monks by King Ethelred was in its consequences far more important. The Bishop of Westminster, who held the land after the dissolution of the monastery, surrendered it to the King in 1550, by whom it was given to Sir Thomas Wroth. It remained in the Wroth family until 1620, when it was acquired by Sir Baptist Hickes, afterwards Viscount Campden. Hickes’ daughter and coheir married Lord Noel, ancestor of the Earls of Gainsborough, and it was held by the Gainsboroughs until 1707. In that year it was bought by Sir William Langhorne, who left it to his nephew. It then went to a Mrs. Margaret Maryon, later to Mrs. Weller, and about 1780 to Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson, in right of his wife. Her son, Sir Thomas Maryon Wilson, succeeded her, and in this line it has remained since 1818.
Besides the Manor of Hampstead there is included in the borough the ancient Manor of Belsize, or Belses. Sir Roger de Brabazon in 1317 gave an estate to Westminster Abbey to found a chantry for himself, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, and Blanche his wife. After many changes it was occupied by Lord Wotton, who had been created a Baron by Charles II. His half-brother, Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, succeeded him, and the family held the Belsize estate until 1807. The house was afterwards turned into a popular place of amusement.

Hampstead as a whole has grown very rapidly. In a map of the beginning of the nineteenth century there are comparatively few houses; these nestle in the shape of a spear-head and haft about the High Street. At West End and Fortune Green are a few more, a few straggle up the southern end of the Kilburn Road, and Rosslyn House and Belsize House are detached, out in the open country.
Seymour, writing in 1735, gives a quaint description of Hampstead as follows: "This Village ... is much more frequented by good company than can well be expected considering its vicinity to London, but such care has been taken to discourage the meaner sort from making it a place of residence that it is now become, after Scarborough and Bath and Tunbridge, one of the Politest Public Places in England, and to add to the Entertainment of the Company there is, besides the long room in which the Company meet publicly on a Monday evening to play at cards, etc., a new Dancing Room built this year."

Hampstead itself, now a town of 80,000 people, is almost entirely modern; the old village has been gradually destroyed until there is next to nothing left. But the Heath remains, the only wild piece of ground within easy reach of the Londoner. It remains to be seen whether the authorities will continue to observe the difference between a park and a heath.

No suburb of London can point to so many distinguished residents as this, the most favoured and the most favourite. Among them may be mentioned Sir Henry Vane, Dr. Butler (author of the "Analogy"), Lord Alvanley, Lord Chatham, Lord Erskine, Crabbe, Dr. Johnson, Joanna Baillie, Mrs. Barbauld, Constable, Romney, Sir James Mackintosh, Steele, Gay, Arbuthnot, Akenside, Thomas Day, Leigh Hunt, Keats, William Blake, John Linnell, Wilkie, Stanfield, Du Maurier, and many others.

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VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE HAMPSTEAD AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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OTHER HAMPSTEAD STATION (1907) ENTRIES

An introduction to Hampstead by G.E. Mitton (1902)
(1600-1902)

Hampstead
(1907-now)

Hampstead station (1907)
(1907)

Hampstead station (1907)

Hampstead station pictured at its opening in 1907

Designed by architect Leslie Green the station was opened on 22 June 1907 by the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway. Located at the junction of Heath Street and Hampstead High Street, the name Heath Street was proposed for the station before opening: indeed, the original tiled station signs on the platform walls still read Heath Street.

Hampstead is on a steep hill and the station platforms are the deepest on the London Underground network, at 58.5 metres (192 ft) below ground level. It has the deepest lift shaft on the Underground at 55 metres (180 ft) feet which houses high-speed lifts. There is also a spiral emergency staircase of over 320 steps.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
6 Ellerdale Road:   6 Ellerdale Road is a house built by the Arts and Crafts movement architect Richard Norman Shaw for himself in the period 1874 to 1876.
Anna Freud Centre:   The Anna Freud Centre is a child mental health research, training and treatment centre.
Bracknell Way, NW3:   Bracknell Way is a small alleyway, usable only by pedestrians
Branch Hill Pond:   Branch Hill Pond which was fed from a spring which was also the main source of the Westbourne.
Bull and Bush:   The Old Bull and Bush is a Grade II listed public house near Hampstead Heath in London which gave its name to the music hall song ’Down at the old Bull and Bush’.
Devonshire House Preparatory School:   Devonshire House preparatory school is based in four large Victorian houses in Hampstead.
Everyman Cinema:   The Everyman, in Heath Street, Hampstead, opened as a cinema on 26 December 1933.
Fitzjohn’s Primary School:   Fitzjohn’s Primary School is a community primary school, established in 1953.
Freud Museum:   The Freud Museum is a museum dedicated to Sigmund Freud, who lived there with his family during the last year of his life.
Great Hollow Elm:   The Great Hollow Elm stood at the top of Hampstead Heath.
Hampstead Town:   This article first appeared in ’A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9, Hampstead, Paddington’.
Hampstead tunnel:   Hampstead Tunnel, 1166 yards long, was built as part of the Hampstead Junction Railway, and opened on 2 January 1860.
Hare and Hounds:   The Hare and Hounds was the northernmost public house in Hampstead.
Keats House:   Keats House is a writer’s house museum in a house once occupied by the Romantic poet John Keats.
Netherhall House:   Netherhall House is a catered intercollegiate halls of residence for men, founded in 1952.
New West End:   New West End was created in the 1840s on the Finchley Road.
Pentameters Theatre:   The Pentameters Theatre was founded in 1968 and is 60-seat venue and is a fringe theatre, located above the Three Horseshoes public house in Hampstead.
Piecemeal building:   The infant River Westbourne crossed, what in 1900, was still a boggy field.
Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel:   The Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel is a place of worship and a member of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, the umbrella organisation for British Unitarians.
Rosslyn House:   Rosslyn (Roslyn) House, which stood between Wedderburn and Lyndhurst Roads, was one of the last of the famous old Hampstead houses to be destroyed.
Shepherd’s Well:   Shepherd’s Well, whose flow was thought to be nearly as pure as distilled water, is the source of the River Tyburn.
Source of the Kilbourne:   The easternmost branch of the River Westbourne rises just south of the centre of Hampstead,
St John, Hampstead:   St John-at-Hampstead is a Church of England parish church dedicated to St John the Evangelist.
St Mary’s Church:   St Mary’s Chapel, now known as St Mary’s Church, is a Grade II* listed Roman Catholic church.
The Academy School:   The Academy School is an independent preparatory school for boys and girls aged between 6 and 13.
The Royal School, Hampstead:   The Royal School, Hampstead, was an independent girls’ day and boarding school. The school educated girls aged 3-16.
Two streams meet:   Somewhere beneath the basement of 16 Frognal, NW3 two tributaries of the River Westbourne meet.
University College School:   University College School, generally known as UCS, is an independent school charity situated in northwest London.
Whitestone Pond:   Whitestone Pond is the source of one of London’s lost rivers, the River Westbourne.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Hampstead station (1907):   Hampstead station pictured at its opening in 1907
Jack Straw's Castle (1907):   Jack Straw’s Castle Hotel, photographed in 1907.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
, NW3 · Arkwright Road, NW3 · Avenue Mansions, NW3 · Back Lane, NW3 · Back Lane, NW9 · Birchwood Drive, NW3 · Bracknell Gardens, NW3 · Bracknell Way, NW3 · Branch Hill, NW3 · Cannon Lane, NW3 · Cannon Place, NW3 · Carlingford Road, NW3 · Carnegie House, NW3 · Chesterford Gardens, NW3 · Christ Church, NW3 · Christchurch Hill, NW3 · Church Row, NW3 · Coach House Yard, NW3 · Columbas Drive, NW3 · Croft Way, NW3 · Croftway, NW3 · Denning Road, NW3 · Downshire Hill, NW3 · East Heath Road, · East Heath Road, NW3 · Ellerdale Close, NW3 · Ellerdale Road, NW3 · Elm Row, NW3 · Falcon Lodge, NW3 · Ferncroft Avenue, NW3 · Finchley Road, NW6 · Firecrest Drive, NW3 · Fitzjohn's Avenue, NW3 · Flask Cottages, NW3 · Flask Walk, NW3 · Fortune Green Road, NW3 · Frognal Close, NW3 · Frognal Lane, NW3 · Frognal Rise, NW3 · Frognal Way, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Frognal, NW3 · Gainsborough Gardens, NW3 · Gardnor Road, NW3 · Gayton Crescent, NW3 · Gayton Road, NW3 · Grange Gardens, NW3 · Greenaway Gardens, NW3 · Greenhill, NW3 · Grove Place, NW3 · Hampstead Grove, NW3 · Hampstead High Street, NW3 · Hampstead Hill Gardens, NW3 · Hampstead Square, NW3 · Heath Brow, NW3 · Heath Drive, NW3 · Heath Hurst Road, NW3 · Heath Side, NW3 · Heath Street, NW3 · Heath Villas, NW3 · Heysham Lane, NW3 · Holly Berry Lane, NW3 · Holly Bush Vale, NW3 · Holly Hill, NW3 · Holly Mount, NW3 · Holly Walk, NW3 · Judges’ Walk, NW3 · Keats Grove, NW3 · Kemplay Road, NW3 · Kidderpore Avenue, NW3 · Kidderpore Gardens, NW3 · Lakis Close, NW3 · Langland Gardens, NW3 · Lindfield Gardens, NW3 · Lower Terrace, NW3 · Lyndhurst Road, NW3 · Lyndhurst Terrace, NW3 · Maresfield Gardens, NW3 · Mount Vernon, NW3 · Netherhall Gardens, NW3 · Netherhall Way, NW3 · New End Square, NW3 · New End, NW3 · Nutley Terrace, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park Mews, NW3 · Oak Hill Park, NW3 · Oak Hill Way, NW3 · Oakhill Avenue, NW3 · Old Brewery Mews, NW3 · Oriel Court, NW3 · Oriel Place, NW3 · Palace Court, NW3 · Perrins Court, NW3 · Perrins Walk, NW3 · Pilgrims Lane, NW3 · Pilgrims Place, NW3 · Prince Arthur Mews, NW3 · Prince Arthur Road, NW3 · Redington Gardens, NW3 · Redington Road, NW3 · Rosecroft Avenue, NW3 · Rosslyn Hill, NW3 · Rosslyn Mews, NW3 · Rudall Crescent, NW3 · Shepherd’s Path, NW3 · Shepherd's Path, NW3 · Shepherds Walk, NW3 · Spaniards Road, NW3 · Spedan Close, NW3 · Streatley Place, NW3 · Studholme Court, NW3 · Telegraph Hill, NW3 · Templewood Avenue, NW3 · Templewood Gardens, NW3 · The Gables, NW3 · The Mount, NW3 · The Wells House, NW3 · Thurlow Road, NW3 · Upper Terrace, NW3 · Vale of Health, NW3 · Vane Close, NW3 · Village Mount, NW3 · Well Road, NW3 · Well Walk, NW3 · Whitestone Lane, NW3 · Willoughby Road, NW3 · Willow Road, NW3 · Windmill Hill, NW3 · Yorkshire Grey Place, NW3 ·


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John Rocque Map of Hampstead (1762).
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map of Hampstead covers an area stretching from the edge in the northwest of present-day Dollis Hill to Islington in the southeast.
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London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
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The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
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London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
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Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
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