Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area.
Little Guildford Street was the middle part of what is now Herbrand Street
, between Great Coram Street
and Bernard Street
, on the western edge of the Foundling estate.
It appears in rough outline on Horwood’s map of 1799, and fully developed, together with Mews to both sides, on his map of 1807
This area was undeveloped fields until the early eighteenth century
It was presumably named for its location near Guilford Street
No numbers appear on Horwood’s maps
There was a pub, the Red Lion, there in the 1820s (The Times, 3 June 1824); there were also livery stables (The Times, 10 June 1825)
At the end of the century, the pub was still there, but had become the Old Red Lion (The Times, 11 June 1883); there was also now a school, Christ Church School (The Times, 26 November 1888), presumably associated with nearby Christ Church, Woburn Square
By the latter part of the century the street had become a slum; in 1897 the leases fell in and the street was sold, along with Little Coram Street
, to the LCC in 1898 (Donald Olsen, Town Planning in London, 2nd edn, 1984)
It was incorporated into the new Herbrand Street
development in 1901.
The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is the 1086 Domesday Book, which records that the area had vineyards and 'wood for 100 pigs'. But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.
The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi
– the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called Lomesbury
which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square
is now, though this piece of folk etymology is now discredited.
At the end of the 14th century Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century, with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown, and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square
. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square
as its centrepiece.
Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.
The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square
, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square
. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street
The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre
, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012.