Long Water

Lake in/near Bayswater, existing between 1730 and now

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Lake · Bayswater · W2 · Contributed by The Underground Map
JANUARY
5
2017


The Long Water is a recreational lake in Kensington Gardens, created in 1730 at the behest of Queen Caroline.

The Long Water refers to the long and narrow western half of the lake that is known as the Serpentine. Serpentine Bridge, which marks the boundary between Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, also marks the Long Water’s eastern boundary. The Long Water and the Serpentine are generally considered to be part of one lake.

Originally the lake was fed by the River Westbourne entering at the Italian Garden at the north-western end of the Long Water.

In 1730 Queen Caroline, wife of George II, ordered the damming of the River Westbourne in Hyde Park as part of a general redevelopment of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens. Original monastic ponds may have existing in the location and these were modified as part of the 1730–1732 scheme to create a single lake. At that time, the Westbourne formed eleven natural ponds in the park. During the 1730s, the lake filled to its current size and shape. The redevelopment was carried out by Royal Gardener Charles Bridgeman, who dammed the Westbourne to create the artificial lake, and dug a large pond in the centre of Kensington Gardens (The Round Pond) to be a focal point for pathways in the park.

At the time of construction, artificial lakes were typically long and straight. The Serpentine was one of the earliest artificial lakes designed to appear natural, and was widely imitated in parks and gardens nationwide.

The Westbourne ceased to provide the water for the Serpentine in 1834, as the river had become polluted, and so water was then pumped from the Thames. The water is now supplied by three boreholes drilled into the Upper Chalk. The first borehole is located at the Italian Gardens, the second at the Diana Memorial and the third, drilled in 2012 to a depth of 132m, is within 50m of the Diana Memorial.

The lake achieved notoriety in December 1816 when Harriet Westbrook, the pregnant wife of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, was found drowned, having left a suicide note addressed to her father, sister and husband. Shelley married Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin less than two weeks later.

The lake formed a focal point of the 1814 celebrations which marked a century of Hanoverian rule and re-enacted the British victory at Trafalgar nine years previously, and of the 1851 Great Exhibition, with the Crystal Palace standing on its southern shore. Following the introduction of more stringent regulations to protect the environment in the park, the relocation of the Crystal Palace, and the construction of the nearby Albertopolis complex of museums and exhibitions, large-scale events ceased to take place on the banks of the Serpentine.

In the 1820s, the park was extensively redesigned by Decimus Burton. At the same time, John Rennie built the Serpentine Bridge to carry the newly built West Carriage Drive along the boundary between Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens, dividing the lake into the Serpentine (east) and the Long Water (west).

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VIEW THE BAYSWATER AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE BAYSWATER AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE BAYSWATER AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE BAYSWATER AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE BAYSWATER AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
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Bayswater

Bayswater is one of London's most cosmopolitan areas - also one of London's biggest concentration of hotels.

Notably, there is a significant Arab population, a large number of Americans, a substantial Greek community attracted by London's Greek Orthodox Cathedral and the area is also a centre of London's Brazilian community.

Architecturally, the biggest part of the area is made up of Victorian mansion blocks, mostly, although not exclusively, divided up into flats. There are also purpose built apartment blocks dating from the inter-war period as well as more recent developments, and a there is large Council Estate, the 800 flat Hallfield Estate, designed by Sir Denys Lasdun and now largely sold off. There are some garden squares in the area.

Queensway and Westbourne Grove are busy High Streets, with a very large number of ethnic restaurants.

Bayswater tube station lies between Notting Hill Gate and Paddington.

The station was opened 1 October 1868, just 5 years after the London Underground started. It was renamed several times: to Bayswater (Queen's Road) & Westbourne Grove in 1923, to Bayswater (Queen's Road) in 1933.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Bayard’s Bridge:   Bayard’s Bridge took the Uxbridge Road over the River Westbourne.
Bayswater:   Bayswater is one of London's most cosmopolitan areas - also one of London's biggest concentration of hotels.
Lancaster Gate:   Lancaster Gate is a mid-nineteenth century development in the Bayswater district of west central London, immediately to the north of Kensington Gardens.
Queen's Cinema:   This cinema was situated at the top of Queensway, on the corner of Bishop's Bridge Road.
Upton Farm:   Upton Farm began in 1725 and was gone by 1839.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Bathurst Street, W2 · Bayswater Road, W2 · Bayswater Road, W8 · Brook Mews North, W2 · Clanricarde Gardens, W2 · Conduit Mews, W2 · Conduit Passage, W2 · Corporate Communications Macmillan House, W2 · Craven Hill Gardens, W2 · Craven Hill, W2 · Craven Road, W2 · Craven Terrace, W2 · Devonshire Terrace, W2 · Edgware Road Subway, W2 · Elms Lane, W2 · Elms Mews, W2 · Entrance Macmillan House, W2 · Fosbury Mews, W2 · Frederick Close, W2 · Garson House, W2 · Hyde Park Gardens, W2 · Hyde Park Gardnes, W2 · Inverness Mews, E16 · Inverness Mews, W2 · Inverness Place, W2 · Inverness Terrace, W2 · Kensington Gardens, W2 · Kensington Gardens, W8 · Kensington West, W14 · Lancaster Gate, W2 · Lancaster Mews, W2 · Lancaster Terrace, W2 · Lancaster Walk, SW7 · Lancaster Walk, W2 · Lanchester Mews, SE14 · Leinster Gardens, W2 · Leinster Mews, W2 · Leinster Terrace, W2 · Linden Gardens, W2 · Notting Hill Gate, W2 · Olympia Mews, W2 · Orme Court, W2 · Orme Lane, W2 · Pickering Mews, W2 · Porchester Gate, W2 · Porchester Terrace, W2 · Princess Court, W2 · Queensborough Passage, W2 · Queensborough Terrace, W2 · Rotten Row, SW7 · Rotten Row, W2 · Serpentine Bridge, W2 · Serpentine Road, SW1X · Serpentine Road, SW7 · Serpentine Road, W1J · Serpentine Road, W1K · Serpentine Road, W2 · Smallbrook Mews, W2 · Spring Street, W2 · St Petersburgh Place, W2 · Stanhope Terrace, W2 · Tigris House Fourth Floor, W2 · Upbrook Mews, W2 · West Carriage Drive, SW7 · West Carriage Drive, W2 · Westbourne Street, W2 ·


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Central London, north west.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
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John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
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Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
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London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
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The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
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Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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