29 Aldgate High Street

Address in/near Aldgate, existed between 1865 and 1972

 HOME  ARTICLE  MAP  FULLSCREEN  STREETS  RECENT  BLOG  HELP  CONTACT 
Click here to log in on Facebook Advanced
MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302018Fullscreen map
Address · Aldgate · EC3N · Contributed by The Underground Map
MARCH
30
2017


29 Aldgate High Street is a demolished property, originally on the north side of Aldgate High Street..

These were premises in front of which Catherine Eddowes was found drunk by PC Louis Robinson.

According to PC Robinson’s inquest testimony, he was on duty in Aldgate High Street at 8.30pm, 29 September 1888 when he saw a crowd outside No.29 - he found Eddowes lying on the pavement. He picked her up and carried her to the side by some shutters and she fell sideways. He got assistance from PC George Simmons and they took her to Bishopsgate Police Station.

Officially, there was no 29 Aldgate High Street in 1888 and it does not appear in any census returns from 1871 to 1901; the numbering, though consecutive on that side, goes from 28 to 30. Research conducted by the late Adrian Phypers in 2001 managed to shed some light on the mystery:

In the late 1860s numbers 28 and 29 were both used by a wine importer. In about 1870 he sold up and the properties were taken on by a Henry Phillips, furniture warehouseman. A year or two later his Kelly’s entry of 28-29 Aldgate High Street becomes plain no. 28. The most likely explanation is that Phillips converted the two properties into one and only needed the one mailing address.

It is therefore likely that PC Robinson looked at the numbering on one of the adjacent premises in order to work out which property he was in front of.
It appears that by 1968, No.29 had been reinstated, but the property and others around it were demolished in the early 1970s. The site is now covered by an office block, Aldgate House, the site of No.29 being marked by the illuminated sign for 33 Aldgate High Street.

Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence



Add your own contribution to 29 Aldgate High Street.
Ensure that contributions are kept civilised and are not abusive.
We store your comment's IP address and reserve the right to apply bans where community standards are violated.
Please enter your name:
Enter the information you wish to add to 29 Aldgate High Street:
Please prove that you are a human by typing the text that you see in the picture below.
CAPTCHA Image
Refresh Image
You can completely dispense with this CAPTCHA palava by logging onto our Facebook app.
Contribution type:
 

If you authorise our The Undeground Map Facebook app by clicking the Facebook logo at the top right of the screen, you can add stories, photos and more to this location.
Note that the Undeground Map Facebook app does not post to Facebook on your behalf.
Jan
Jan   
Added: 15 Mar 2018 09:39 GMT   
IP: 92.30.46.73
4:1:42006
Post by Jan: Kerbela Street, E2

My grandparents lived in Kerbela Street many years ago when they were terraced houses. My memory of the street is one long street with these strange wrought iron things outside - which I now know as boot scrapers. The house inside was fairly large, but I was a child. Loo was outside. Shame they knocked the terraces down and build a huge housing estate, but that?s progress I suppose. Does anyone know the origin of the name Kerbela?

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 20 Apr 2018 04:40 GMT   
IP:
5:2:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bermondsey
Stabbing in Ayres Street: police appeal for information
Police have launched an appeal for information after a 25-year-old man was stabbed near Pattison House on Ayres Street on Saturday afternoon.

http://feeds.london-se1.co.uk/~r/se1-news/~3/Zb4OBupzpSk/9586

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 20 Apr 2018 04:00 GMT   
IP:
5:3:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bank
Four-day rail strike on London’s DLR suspended
The walk-out would have affected thousands of commuters as well as London Marathon runners.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-43823271

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 20 Apr 2018 01:20 GMT   
IP:
5:4:42006
Post by LDNnews: Aldgate East

Emma Willis and Caroline Flack look chic on outing in London


Emma Willis and Caroline Flack look chic on outing in London


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-5634245/Emma-Willis-looks-chic-printed-shirt-shes-joined-leggy-Caroline-Flack-London.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
’ target=’new’>
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-5634245/Emma-Willis-looks-chic-printed-shirt-shes-joined-leggy-Caroline-Flack-London.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490


LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 20 Apr 2018 01:20 GMT   
IP:
5:5:42006
Post by LDNnews: Aldgate

Kylie Minogue twirls in alluring white gown on arrival at BBC studios


The 49-year-old Australian pop star defied age and time when she made a ravishing appearance on arrival at the BBC Studios, in London on Thursday.


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-5635297/Kylie-Minogue-49-looks-flawless-twirls-alluring-white-gown-arrival-BBC-studios.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
’ target=’new’>
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-5635297/Kylie-Minogue-49-looks-flawless-twirls-alluring-white-gown-arrival-BBC-studios.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490


LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 19 Apr 2018 16:20 GMT   
IP:
5:6:42006
Post by LDNnews: Cannon Street



http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/16170722.Barnet_Labour____failed_to_take_anti_Semitism_seriously____says_former_member/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 19 Apr 2018 09:00 GMT   
IP:
5:7:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bermondsey
SE1 schoolgirls meet Prime Ministers of Canada and New Zealand
The prime ministers of Canada and New Zealand visited City Hall on Wednesday morning where they met - and took questions from - young Londoners including pupils from St Saviour’s and St Olave’s.

http://feeds.london-se1.co.uk/~r/se1-news/~3/PjdZNLXtmjk/9584

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 19 Apr 2018 08:20 GMT   
IP:
5:8:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bank
Childhood dementia: Boy fronts Tube station poster campaign
George has a rare form of childhood dementia called Batten Disease.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-coventry-warwickshire-43815259

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 18 Apr 2018 21:00 GMT   
IP:
5:9:42006
Post by LDNnews: Cannon Street
Chelsea boss Antonio Conte fears Manchester City dominance after Pep Guardiola takes crown
Antonio Conte fears Manchester City can go on to dominate the Premier League after clinching the title this season with ease.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/antonio-conte-fears-manchester-city-dominance-after-pep-guardiola-takes-chelseas-crown-a3817381.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 18 Apr 2018 09:20 GMT   
IP:
5:10:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bank
Parsons Green stabbing: Omid Saidy died after ’chasing drug dealers’
Omid Saidy was stabbed to death in a fight outside Parsons Green station in October, a court hears.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-43798563

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 18 Apr 2018 09:20 GMT   
IP:
5:11:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bermondsey
Shrewsbury Town 0-2 Charlton Athletic
Jason Pearce and Josh Magennis are on target as Charlton win at Shrewsbury to move back into the League One play-offs.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/41867484

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 17 Apr 2018 19:20 GMT   
IP:
5:12:42006
Post by LDNnews: Cannon Street
Children’s club at Worcester Park primary school is rated ’inadequate’

A children’s club which runs before and after-school sessions at a Worcester Park primary school has been rated ’inadequate’ in its latest inspection.


http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/16165094.Children_s_club_at_Worcester_Park_primary_school_is_rated__inadequate_/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 17 Apr 2018 19:00 GMT   
IP:
5:13:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bermondsey
Brighton vs Tottenham, Premier League team news and starting line-ups: Toby Alderweireld returns for Spurs
LIVE | Follow Brighton vs Tottenham with Standard Sport

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/brighton-vs-tottenham-premier-league-team-news-starting-lineups-toby-alderweireld-returns-a3816531.html

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 17 Apr 2018 08:00 GMT   
IP:
5:14:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bank
Moment shopkeeper fights off armed robber in Twickenham
Footage of the moment a shopkeeper fought off two armed attackers has been released by police.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-43784203

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 16 Apr 2018 21:20 GMT   
IP:
5:15:42006
Post by LDNnews: Cannon Street
Cray Wanderers take campaign for stadium to City Hall

London’s oldest football team has taken to the capital to demonstrate the support for its new stadium.


http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/16162979.Cray_Wanderers_take_campaign_for_stadium_to_City_Hall/?ref=rss

LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 16 Apr 2018 21:00 GMT   
IP:
5:16:42006
Post by LDNnews: Bermondsey
West Ham vs Stoke City LIVE latest score: Premier League 2017-18 goal updates, TV, how to watch online, team news, line-ups at London Stadium
West Ham vs Stoke City | Premier League | London Stadium

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/west-ham-vs-stoke-live-premier-league-2018-latest-score-goals-tv-online-lineups-london-stadium-a3815396.html

VIEW THE ALDGATE AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE ALDGATE AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE ALDGATE AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE ALDGATE AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE ALDGATE AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
 Upload an image
You can add an image to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 Add new information to this location
You can add text to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 Add a new address to Aldgate High Street.
Add a new address to this, or any, street within the M25.
Add an address if you want to add a memory or other historical information to a house, flat or shop in 29 Aldgate High Street.
 Log on via Facebook
You can use a Facebook id to add material to this website.

Aldgate High Street, EC3N

Once the route to one of the six original gates of the Wall of London, Aldgate High Street has an important place in medieval London’s history.

Aldgate High Street was closely located to where the eastern part of the original Roman Wall, and in the medieval period, it led to town of Colchester in Essex.

Because of its connection to places outside London, Aldgate High Street was vital to the geography of medieval London. Unfortunately, any archaeological remnants of the Roman gate have been obscured, and there is no evidence of its precise location, but is believed to have straddled Aldgate High Street, the gate’s northern edge beneath the pavement of current address of 1-2 Aldgate High Street, and its southern edge beneath 88-89 Aldgate High Street.

There is some dispute over the etymology and meaning of "Aldgate," but various historians have provided some theories. The earliest record of Aldgate has it listed as East Gate, which makes sense, given its location as the easternmost gate on the Wall.

Another interpretation of its current name, "Ale Gate," indicates that an ale-house may have been nearby, and yet another, "All Gate," may have pointed to that area’s openness to all. Even though the name Aldgate may point to a variety or origins, all of these etymologies do seem to corroborate Aldgate High Street’s history of being a center for weary travelers to London, who may have stayed at an inn or have a pint of ale on this street. Most scholars seem to agree that the most likely meaning of "Aldgate," however, is "Old Gate," which gives us an indication Aldgate High Street’s antiquity, and its long history dating back to Roman times.

Aldgate High Street’s close proximity to Aldgate helped to cement it as a centre for visitors. The street was once home to inns and taverns to accommodate the travellers coming in and out of London through Aldgate. As is the case with many other parts of London, there are few remnants of buildings or sites actually dating back to the medieval period. The only buildings on Aldgate High Street that date to the period before the Great Fire are a series of buildings at the northern end of Aldgate High Street, one of which is a pub called Hoop & Grapes. This pub is incredibly unique, as it was built in 1593 and was one of the only wooden buildings to survive the Great Fire of 1666. Today, the front of the building looks much like it did in the Tudor period, possessing a few medieval characteristics such as the jetties on its second level and its characteristic Tudor, timber frame. The cellar also supposedly dates back to the thirteenth century.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Aldgate:   Aldgate was a gateway through London Wall from the City of London to Whitechapel and the East End.
Aldgate East:   In a land east of Aldgate, lies the land of Aldgate East...
Aldgate Pump:   Aldgate Pump is a historic water pump, located at the junction where Aldgate meets Fenchurch Street and Leadenhall Street.
All Hallows-by-the-Tower:   All Hallows-by-the-Tower is the oldest church in London with a story involving Samuel Pepys, royalty and the foundation of Pennsylvania.
Bevis Marks Synagogue:   Bevis Marks Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in the United Kingdom.
Boar’s Head Theatre:   The Boar’s Head Theatre was an inn-yard theatre in the Whitechapel area.
Fenchurch Street:   Fenchurch Street railway station is a central London railway terminus in the southeastern corner of the City of London. It is one of the smallest railway termini in London but in terms of platforms, one of the most intensively operated.
Goodman’s Fields Theatre:   Two 18th century theatres bearing the name Goodman’s Fields Theatre were located on Alie Street, Whitechapel.
Great Synagogue of London:   The Great Synagogue of London was, for centuries, the centre of Ashkenazi synagogue and Jewish life in London. It was destroyed during World War II, in the Blitz.
Holy Trinity, Minories:   Holy Trinity, Minories was a Church of England parish church outside the eastern boundaries of the City of London, but within the Liberties of the Tower of London.
London Metal Exchange:   The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world’s largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
Petticoat Lane Market:   Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market in the East End.
Portsoken:   Portsoken is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an alderman to the Court of Aldermen and commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) elected to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation.
Spitalfields:   Spitalfields is near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane.
St Augustine Papey:   St Augustine Papey was a mediaeval church in the City of London situated just south of London Wall.
St Botolph’s:   St. Botolph’s without Aldgate, located on Aldgate High Street, has existed for over a thousand years.
St Katharine Cree:   St Katharine Cree is a Church of England church on the north side of Leadenhall Street near Leadenhall Market.
Tower Gateway:   Tower Gateway is a Docklands Light Railway station near to the Tower of London.
Tower Hill:   Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London.
Toynbee Hall:   Toynbee Hall is a building which is the home of a charity of the same name.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
London in 1457:   Goulston Street is a thoroughfare running north-south from Wentworth Street to Whitechapel High Street.
Wentworth Street (1901):   Turn-of-the-century fashion in east London.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Aldgate Bus Garage, EC3N · Aldgate High Street, EC3N · Aldgate, EC3N · Alie Street, E1 · America Square, EC3N · Angel Alley, E1 · Arcadia Court, E1 · Artillery Lane, E1 · Artillery Passage, E1 · Arts Quarter, E1 · Back Alley, EC3N · Bell Lane, E1 · Bevis Marks, EC3A · Bishopsgate Arcade, EC2M · Bishopsgate, EC2M · Braham Street, E1 · Brune House, E1 · Brune Street, E1 · Brushfield Street, E1 · Brushfield Street, EC2M · Buckle Street, E1 · Bury Street, EC3A · Byward Street, EC3R · Camperdown Street, E1 · Carlisle Avenue, EC3N · Cartwright Street, E1 · Chamber Street, E1 · Cobb Street, E1 · College East, E1 · Commercial St, E1 · Commercial Street, E1 · Coney Way, SW8 · Cooper?s Row, EC3N · Coopers Row, EC3N · Coppergate House, E1 · Creechurch Lane, EC3A · Crescent, EC3N · Cresent, EC3N · Crispin Place, E1 · Crispin Street, E1 · Crosswall, EC3N · Crutched Friars, EC3N · Cutler Street, E1 · Cutler Street, EC3A · Devonshire Row, EC2M · Devonshire Square, E1 · Devonshire Square, EC2M · Dorset Street, E1 · Dukes Place, EC3A · Dukes Place, EC3A · Dukes Place, EC3N · East Tenter Street, E1 · Fashion Street, E1 · Fenchurch Buildings, EC3M · Fenchurch Place, EC3M · Flower and Dean Street, E1 · Fournier Street, E1 · Frying Pan Alley, E1 · George Street, E1 · Goodman?s Yard, E1 · Goodmans Yard, E1 · Goring Street, EC3A · Goulston Street, E1 · Gravel Lane, E1 · Gun Street, E1 · Gunthorpe Street, E1 · Harrow Place, E1 · Hart Street, EC3R · Haydon Street, E1 · Haydon Street, EC3N · Heneage Lane, EC3A · Heneage Street, E1 · Hopetown Street, E1 · Houndsditch, EC3A · Ibex House, EC3N · India Street, EC3N · Irongate House, EC3A · Jewry Street, EC3N · Leyden Street, E1 · Library Square, E1 · Little Paternoster Row, E1 · Little Somerset Street, E1 · Lloyd?s Avenue, EC3N · Lloyds Avenue, EC3N · Lolesworth Close, E1 · London Fruit Exchange, E1 · London Street, EC3R · Mansell Street, E1 · Mansell Street, EC3N · Middlesex Street, E1 · Middlesex Street, EC3A · Minories, EC3N · Minories, EC3N · Minsters Pavement, EC3A · Mitre Avenue, E17 · Mitre Square, EC3A · Mitre Street, EC3A · Monmouth House, E1 · Muscovy Street, EC3R · New Goulston Street, E1 · New London Street, EC3R · New Street, EC2M · North Tenter Street, E1 · Old Castle Street, E1 · Osborn Street, E1 · Osborne Street, E1 · Osbourne Street, E1 · Parliament Court, E1 · Pepys Street, EC3N · Pomell Way, E1 · Portsoken Street, E1 · Prescot Street, E1 · Railway Arches, EC3N · Rose Court, E1 · Royal Mint Place, E1 · Royal Mint Street, E1 · Sandy’s Row, E1 · Sandys Row, E1 · Saracen?s Head Yard, EC3N · Savage Gardens, EC3N · Scarborough Street, E1 · Seething Lane, EC3N · Shorter Street, E1 · Shorter Street, EC3N · South Tenter Street, E1 · St Botolph Street, EC3A · St Clare House, EC3N · St Clare Street, EC3N · St James’s Passage, EC3A · St James’s Place, EC3A · St Mark Street, E1 · St. Botolph Street, EC3A · Staple Hall, EC3A · Stone House Court, EC3A · Stoney Lane, E1 · Strype Street, E1 · Tenter Ground, E1 · The Queen?s Steps, EC3N · The Queen’s Steps, EC3N · Thrawl Street, E1 · Tower Hill, EC3N · Toynbee Street, E1 · Trinity Square, EC3N · Victoria Avenue, EC2M · Victoria Yard, E1 · Vine Street, EC3N · Wentworth Street, E1 · West Tenter Street, E1 · White Kennet Street, E1 · White Kennett Street, E1 · White Kennett Street, EC3A · Whitechapel High Street, E1 · Whites Row, E1 · Whittington Avenue, EC3A · Widegate Street, E1 · Wrestlers Court, EC3A ·

Print-friendly version of this page

Links

Medieval London: Introduction · Medieval London
Tower Gateway
Facebook Page
Shoreditch High Street
Facebook Page
Monument
Facebook Page
Liverpool Street
Facebook Page
Tower Hill
Facebook Page
Aldgate East
Facebook Page
Aldgate
Facebook Page
Hidden London
Histor­ically inclined look at the capital’s obscure attractions
Edith’s Streets
A wander through London, street by street
Londonist
All-encompassing website
British History Online
Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.

Maps


Cole's map of Aldgate Ward (1754) FREE DOWNLOAD
Aldgate Ward with its divisions into Precincts and Parishes according to a new Survey 1754. B. Cole
B. Cole

Central London, north east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
1 


COPYRIGHT TERMS:
Unless a source is explicitedly stated, text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Articles may be a remixes of various Wikipedia articles plus work by the website authors - original Wikipedia source can generally be accessed under the same name as the main title. This does not affect its Creative Commons attribution.

Maps upon this website are in the public domain because they are mechanical scans of public domain originals, or - from the available evidence - are so similar to such a scan or photocopy that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in public domain for the following reason:
Public domain Maps used are in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights.

This tag is designed for use where there may be a need to assert that any enhancements (eg brightness, contrast, colour-matching, sharpening) are in themselves insufficiently creative to generate a new copyright. It can be used where it is unknown whether any enhancements have been made, as well as when the enhancements are clear but insufficient. For usage, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.