Uxendon Shooting Grounds

Sports field in/near Kingsbury, existed between 1898 and 1932

 HOME  ARTICLE  MAP  FULLSCREEN  STREETS  RECENT  BLOG  HELP  CONTACT 
Click here to log in on Facebook Advanced
MAPPING YEAR:1750180018301860190019302017Fullscreen map
Sports field · Kingsbury · HA9 · Contributed by The Underground Map
APRIL
10
2017
Clay pigeon shooting at Uxendon, 1908
Credit: Alamy images

Uxendon Shooting Grounds was the location of the clay pigeon shooting for the 1908 Olympics.

A field just to the east of Uxendon Farm had been set aside for shooting at the end of the nineteenth century.

Uxendon on the western slopes of Barn Hill was first recorded in 1257 as a small settlement in a transaction concerning Hugh of "Woxindon". In the 14th or 15th centuries some local people, including the Uxendon family, moved south to form another small community at Forty Green, where the Sudbury to Kingsbury road crossed the Lidding brook at Forty Bridge. This settlement was known as Uxendon Forty, Wembley Forty or Preston Forty. In 1516 the Bellamy family acquired Uxendon through marriage. They remained staunchly Roman Catholic after the Reformation and sheltered Catholic priests. Because of their faith the Bellamys suffered considerably in the final years of the 16th century.

By 1608 their land was in the hands of the Page family, who had become the leading landowners in the Wembley area. The Bellamys had already enclosed a small amount of open land. The Pages continued this process throughout the 17th century. Nonetheless a significant amount of common land remained until the Enclosure Act of 1803.

By 1732 a new farm, Barn Hill Farm, existed on the summit of Barn Hill. It was probably gone by the late 18th century, when Richard Page began building a folly or prospect house on Barn Hill. In 1792 Page engaged the celebrated landscape gardener, Humphry Repton, to layout "Wembley Park".

In 1829 many of the Page family lands, including Uxendon, went to Henry Young, the junior partner of the Page’s solicitor. There is good reason to suspect that Young obtained the lands fraudulently. In the decades that followed Young’s death numerous persons turned up claiming the ‘Page millions’, but no one was successful.

The district did not change significantly in the 19th century. This was due to an agricultural depression after the Napoleonic Wars and London’s growing need for hay; both Uxendon and Forty farms had converted to hay farming by 1852. The depression also led to an outbreak of violence in the area around 1828, when desperate agricultural labourers burnt haystacks and threatened local landowners.

In 1851 Uxendon Farm housed 13 people and Forty Farm 10, while three more lived at the top of Barn Hill. Around this time Uxendon was the venue for steeplechases and well known for its "sensational water jump”.

The construction of the Metropolitan Railway in 1880 effectively destroyed Forty Green, although South Forty Farm continued into the 20th century. In 1928 that farm became the headquarters of the Century Sports Ground. The celebrated gunsmiths Holland & Holland had a shooting ground nearby. As Forty Farm Sports Ground the site of the farm remains green to this day. The Holland & Holland grounds, however, were built over after 1931.

In 1896 the suggestion that a station should be built serving Preston was rejected because the local population was so small.

By 1900 Uxendon Farm had become a shooting ground (the Lancaster Shooting Club). When the Olympic Games were held in London in 1908 the ground was sufficiently important to be used for Olympic clay pigeon shooting. Pressure from the shooting club, which was a two mile walk from the nearest station, played a part in the opening of Preston Road Halt in May 1908.

A station on the eastern side of the Preston Road bridge was opened on 21 May 1908, and was originally named Preston Road Halt for Uxendon and Kenton; it was later renamed Preston Road. A path through Uxendon Farm connected to the lane which became Preston Road. From there it was but a short walk to the new halt. The temporary wooden platforms for this halt (the trains stopped “by request” only) were used until the current station was built, on the opposite side of Preston Road, as part of a 1930s suburban development.

The station was a halt (a request stop) and initially many trains failed to slow down enough to enable the driver to notice passengers waiting on the platform. Preston Road Halt triggered the first commuter development in the district. Some large Edwardian houses were built along Preston Road after 1910 and Harrow Golf Club opened near the station in 1912. Wembley Golf Club had already existed on the southern slopes of Barn Hill from about 1895. Both these golf courses would disappear under housing between the wars.

West Hill, Uxendon Hill and the roads between them were built around the same time on the site of the shooting ground, after the farm was demolished to make way for a railway extension to Stanmore, which opened in 1932 and is now the Jubilee Line.

Preston Road station was upgraded from a halt to a fully serviced station in 1931 when, during 1931–32, Preston Road station was re-sited on the opposite side of the road bridge, and the work was carried out in two stages: the southbound platform was re-sited on 22 November 1931, and the northbound on 3 January 1932.

Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence



Uxendon Shooting Grounds news feed:
Add a comment to the Uxendon Shooting Grounds news feed.
Ensure that contributions are kept civilised and are not abusive.
We store your comment's IP address and reserve the right to apply bans where community standards are violated.
Please enter your name:
Enter the information you wish to add to Uxendon Shooting Grounds:
Please prove that you are a human by typing the text that you see in the picture below.
CAPTCHA Image
Refresh Image
You can completely dispense with this CAPTCHA palava by logging onto our Facebook app.
Contribution type:
 

If you authorise our The Undeground Map Facebook app by clicking the Facebook logo at the top right of the screen, you can add stories, photos and more to this location.
Note that the Undeground Map Facebook app does not post to Facebook on your behalf.
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 17:30 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 17:30 GMT   
IP:
1:1
Post by LDNnews: Sudbury Town
Vehicle overturns in serious crash on M26 that has caused traffic back to M25
Kent Police are on the scene of a serious crash on the M26 that has caused delays stretching back to the M25.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15490842.Vehicle_overturns_in_serious_crash_on_M26_that_has_caused_traffic_back_to_M25/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 17:30 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 17:30 GMT   
IP:
1:2
Post by LDNnews: Stonebridge Park
Amazing work to transform services at Teddington Memorial Hospital has gained staff an awards nomination
Medical staff at Teddington Memorial Hospital have been shortlisted for a prestigious award.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15491125.Amazing_work_to_transform_services_at_Teddington_Memorial_Hospital_has_gained_staff_an_awards_nomination/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 17:30 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 17:30 GMT   
IP:
1:3
Post by LDNnews: Wembley Park
Richmond had zero upheld bin collection complaints despite sharp rise nationally
Richmond Council today confirmed there has been zero upheld collection complaints in the borough despite a sharp rise nationally.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15491261.Richmond_had_zero_upheld_bin_collection_complaints_despite_sharp_rise_nationally/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 13:50 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 13:50 GMT   
IP:
1:4
Post by LDNnews: Burnt Oak
Public meeting will discuss future of Barnet police station
A meeting to discuss the potential closure of High Barnet police station is set to take place next month.

http://www.times-series.co.uk/news/15490542.Public_meeting_will_discuss_future_of_Barnet_police_station/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 12:20 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 12:20 GMT   
IP:
1:5
Post by LDNnews: Alperton
Cheltenham Town v West Ham United
Preview followed by live coverage of Wednesday’s EFL Cup game between Cheltenham Town and West Ham United.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/40944669
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 23 Aug 2017 02:30 GMT   
Expires: 6 Sep 2017 02:30 GMT   
IP:
1:6
Post by LDNnews: South Kenton
Amateur boxer convicted of raping teenage girl after she recorded his confession
An amateur boxer has been convicted of raping a teenage girl after she secretly recorded his confession on her mobile phone.

https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/amateur-boxer-convicted-of-raping-teenage-girl-after-she-recorded-his-confession-a3617026.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Aug 2017 19:40 GMT   
Expires: 5 Sep 2017 19:40 GMT   
IP:
1:7
Post by LDNnews: Sudbury Town



http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15488364.A_Richmond_charity_is_raising___25_000_to_feed_more_than_1_000_schoolchildren_and_staff_in_Kenya_for_a_year/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Aug 2017 19:40 GMT   
Expires: 5 Sep 2017 19:40 GMT   
IP:
1:8
Post by LDNnews: Stonebridge Park
A schizophrenic knifeman who stabbed a train passenger after shouting ’I want to kill all Muslims’ has been detained indefinitely in hospital
A schizophrenic attacker who stabbed a Muslim man on a train to Forest Hill after shouting "I want to kill all Muslims" has been detained indefinitely in hospital.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15488803.A_schizophrenic_knifeman_who_stabbed_a_train_passenger_after_shouting__I_want_to_kill_all_Muslims__has_been_detained_indefinitely_in_hospital/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Aug 2017 19:40 GMT   
Expires: 5 Sep 2017 19:40 GMT   
IP:
1:9
Post by LDNnews: Wembley Park
A ’boa constrictor’ is on the loose in Abbey Wood after escaping capture
A 3ft snake thought to be a boa constrictor has been spotted in Abbey Wood - but slithered off before anybody could capture it.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15487720.A__boa_constrictor__is_on_the_loose_in_Abbey_Wood_after_escaping_capture/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Aug 2017 15:50 GMT   
Expires: 5 Sep 2017 15:50 GMT   
IP:
1:10
Post by LDNnews: Burnt Oak
Crystal Palace v Ipswich Town
Preview followed by live coverage of Tuesday’s EFL Cup game between Crystal Palace and Ipswich Town.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/40932013
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 22 Aug 2017 08:30 GMT   
Expires: 5 Sep 2017 08:30 GMT   
IP:
1:11
Post by LDNnews: South Kenton
Chelsea's Tiemoue Bakayoko says he still needs to 'get into the rhythm of the Premier League'
Tiemoue Bakayoko says he is happy with his Chelsea debut against Tottenham, but insists he still needs to get used to the pace and physicality of the Premier League.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/chelseas-tiemoue-bakayoko-says-he-still-needs-to-get-into-the-rhythm-of-the-premier-league-a3616736.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Aug 2017 20:00 GMT   
Expires: 4 Sep 2017 20:00 GMT   
IP:
1:12
Post by LDNnews: Sudbury Town
Croydon High Street to become pedestrianised in effort to boost night time economy
Large sections of Croydon High Street are due to be pedestrianised in an effort to boost the town’s night time economy.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15486476.Croydon_High_Street_to_become_pedestrianised_in_effort_to_boost_night_time_economy/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Aug 2017 20:00 GMT   
Expires: 4 Sep 2017 20:00 GMT   
IP:
1:13
Post by LDNnews: Stonebridge Park
Man jailed after knife-point robbery at cash machine in Sutton High Street
A 22-year-old man has been sent to prison for four and a half years after a knife point robbery in Sutton High Street.

http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/15485148.Man_jailed_after_knife_point_robbery_at_cash_machine_in_Sutton_High_Street/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Aug 2017 19:50 GMT   
Expires: 4 Sep 2017 19:50 GMT   
IP:
1:14
Post by LDNnews: Wembley Park
Tottenham's Harry Kane joins calls for the transfer window to shut before the start of the season
Harry Kane has called for the transfer window to close before the start of the season to stop players being distracted during the early weeks.

https://www.standard.co.uk/sport/football/tottenham-s-harry-kane-joins-calls-for-the-transfer-window-to-shut-before-the-start-of-the-season-a3616286.html
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 21 Aug 2017 16:50 GMT   
Expires: 4 Sep 2017 16:50 GMT   
IP:
1:15
Post by LDNnews: Burnt Oak
Enfield man who was hospitalised before MP stepped in and helped gain Asperger’s diagnosis turns life around with art therapy
Enfield man who was hospitalised before MP stepped in and helped gain Asperger’s diagnosis turns life around with art therapy

http://www.times-series.co.uk/news/15486505.___Before_taking_up_art__I_was_an_incredibly_destructive_person_____Artist_with_Asperger_s_Syndrome_speaks_out/?ref=rss
LDNnews
LDNnews   
Added: 24 Aug 2017 00:30 GMT   
Expires: 7 Sep 2017 00:30 GMT   
IP:
2:16
Post by LDNnews: Roding Valley



https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/video/2017/aug/23/husband-pays-tribute-to-wife-killed-by-fixed-wheel-cyclist-video
VIEW THE KINGSBURY AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE KINGSBURY AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE KINGSBURY AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE KINGSBURY AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE KINGSBURY AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

 

 
 Upload an image
You can add an image to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 Add new information to this location
You can add text to this location if you are logged into our Facebook app.
 
 Log on via Facebook
You can use a Facebook id to add material to this website.

Kingsbury

Kingsbury station was opened on 10 December 1932 as part of the Stanmore branch of the Metropolitan Railway and served by that company’s electric trains.

After the formation of London Transport in 1933 this branch became part of the Metropolitan line and was later transferred to the Bakerloo line in 1939 then to the Jubilee line in 1979. The design style is similar to that of other Metropolitan Railway buildings of the same period rather than to the concrete and glass style used at the same time by the LER group.

In common with other nearby Metropolitan Railway stations (e.g. Harrow-on-the-Hill, Neasden, Queensbury) there is an element of fiction in the station name; the area is properly within the eastern extent of Kenton (Kingsbury Road at this point was originally part of the eastern end of Kenton Lane) and Kingsbury proper is actually closer to Neasden station.

Although now only served by deep-level tube trains, the section of line serving the station is built to surface gauge, and trains to that larger LU loading gauge occasionally pass through.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Blackbird Hill Farm:   Blackbird Hill Farm was situated on the corner of Birdbird Hill and Old Church Lane.
Kingsbury:   Kingsbury station was opened on 10 December 1932 as part of the Stanmore branch of the Metropolitan Railway and served by that company’s electric trains.
Roe Green:   Roe Green was an original garden village.
Uxendon Farm:   Uxendon was once more important than Wembley.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Blackbird Hill (1906):   Blackbird Hill is image in 1906 and then part of Neasden.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Adams Close, NW9 · Alington Crescent, NW9 · Alverstone Road, HA9 · Anton Place, HA9 · Bacon Lane, NW9 · Baird Close, NW9 · Barn Hill, HA9 · Barn Rise, HA9 · Barn Way, HA9 · Barningham Way, NW9 · Basing Hill, HA9 · Beaulieu Close, NW9 · Berkeley Road, NW9 · Beverley Gardens, HA9 · Birchen Close, NW9 · Birchen Grove, NW9 · Blackbird Hill, NW9 · Bowater Road, HA9 · Bowman Trading Estate, NW9 · Boycroft Avenue, NW9 · Brampton Grove, HA9 · Brampton Road, NW9 · Briarwood Close, NW9 · Bruno Place, NW9 · Buddings Circle, HA9 · Burgess Avenue, NW9 · Bush Grove, NW9 · Carter Close, NW9 · Chalkhill Road, HA9 · Chalklands, HA9 · Charlton Road, HA9 · Church Drive, NW9 · Church Lane, NW9 · Clovelly Avenue, NW9 · Colin Close, NW9 · Colin Crescent, NW9 · Colin Drive, NW9 · Colin Gardens, NW9 · Colin Parade, NW9 · Colin Park Road, NW9 · Colindeep Lane, NW9 · Corringham Road, HA9 · Cottenham Drive, NW9 · Court Way, NW9 · Crossway, NW9 · Crundale Avenue, NW9 · Daisy Close, NW9 · Deanscroft Avenue, NW9 · Deerfield Close, NW9 · Demeta Close, HA9 · Dimsdale Drive, NW9 · Dryburgh Gardens, NW9 · Dugolly Avenue, HA9 · Dunster Drive, NW9 · East Hill, HA9 · Edgware Road, NW9 · Elmcroft Gardens, NW9 · Elmstead Avenue, HA9 · Elthorne Road, NW9 · Elthorne Way, NW9 · Eton Grove, NW9 · Eversley Avenue, HA9 · Farnborough Close, HA9 · Forty Avenue Grand Parade, HA9 · Fryent Way, NW9 · Garrick Road, NW9 · Gervase Close, HA9 · Girton Avenue, NW9 · Glenwood Grove, NW9 · Goldsmith Lane, NW9 · Grand Parade, HA9 · Greenhill Way, HA9 · Grendon Gardens, HA9 · Grosvenor Crescent, NW9 · Havenwood, HA9 · Hawthorne Grove, NW9 · Hill Drive, NW9 · Hillfield Avenue, NW9 · Holden Avenue, NW9 · Holly Grove, NW9 · Hyde Estate Road, NW9 · Irving Way, NW9 · Jubilee Close, NW9 · Kings Drive, HA9 · Kingsbury Arcade, NW9 · Kingsbury Circle, NW9 · Kingsbury Trading Estate, NW9 · Kingsbury, NW9 · Kingsgate, HA9 · Kingsmead Avenue, NW9 · Kingsmere Park, NW9 · Laburnum Grove, NW9 · Langdon Drive, NW9 · Larkspur Close, NW9 · Lavender Avenue, NW9 · Ledway Drive, HA3 · Ledway Drive, HA9 · Leith Close, NW9 · Lewgars Avenue, NW9 · Leybourne Road, NW9 · Lynton Avenue, NW9 · Mallard Way, NW9 · Manor Close, NW9 · Manor Way, NW9 · Maple Grove, NW9 · Marlow Court, NW9 · Mayfields Close, HA9 · Mayfields, HA9 · Meadowbank Road, NW9 · Merley Court, NW9 · Mersham Drive, NW9 · Midholm, HA9 · Mount Drive, HA9 · New Way Road, NW9 · Newland Court, HA9 · Old Church Lane, NW9 · Orchard Gate, NW9 · Oxenpark Avenue, HA9 · Peace Grove, HA9 · Pilgrims Way, HA9 · Piper’s Green, NW9 · Poolsford Road, NW9 · Poplar Grove, HA9 · Princes Avenue, NW9 · Queens Walk, NW9 · Rankin Close, NW9 · Ravenscroft Avenue, HA9 · Rawlings Crescent, HA9 · Reeves Avenue, NW9 · Roe End, NW9 · Roe Green, NW9 · Roe Lane, NW9 · Rook Close, HA9 · Rookery Close, NW9 · Rookery Way, NW9 · Rose Bates Drive, NW9 · Ross Court, NW9 · Rossdale Drive, NW9 · Rowan Drive, NW9 · Rugby Road, NW9 · Runbury Circle, NW9 · Rushgrove Avenue, NW9 · Rushgrove Parade, NW9 · Ruskin Gardens, NW9 · Russell Road, NW9 · Saint Davids Close, HA9 · Salmon Street, NW9 · Saltcroft Close, HA9 · Scottwell Drive, NW9 · Scudamore Lane, NW9 · Sedum Close, NW9 · Sheaveshill Avenue, NW9 · Sheaveshill Parade, NW9 · Sherborne Gardens, NW9 · Shorts Croft, NW9 · Silkfield Road, NW9 · Slough Lane, NW9 · St Andrews Road, NW9 · St Matthias Close, NW9 · Stag Lane, NW9 · Stewart Close, NW9 · Stubbs Close, NW9 · Sunningdale Gardens, NW9 · Sunnymead Road, NW9 · Sutherland Court, NW9 · Swinton Close, HA9 · Sycamore Grove, NW9 · Technology Park, NW9 · Tennyson Avenue, NW9 · The Avenue, HA9 · The Crossways, HA9 · The Drive, HA9 · The Hyde Industrial Estate, NW9 · The Hyde, NW9 · The Loning, NW9 · The Mount, HA9 · The Paddocks, HA9 · Townsend Lane, NW9 · Tudor Close, NW9 · Tudor Gardens, NW9 · Tunworth Close, NW9 · Tyre Lane, NW9 · Uxendon Hill, HA9 · Valley Drive, NW9 · Varley Parade, NW9 · Waltham Avenue, NW9 · Walton Avenue, HA9 · Wells Drive, NW9 · Wellspring Crescent, HA9 · Wentworth Hill, HA9 · West Close, HA9 · West Hill, HA9 · Westmoreland Road, NW9 · Wickliffe Gardens, HA9 · Wilberforce Road, NW9 · Wilson Close, HA9 · Wilson Drive, HA9 · Wimborne Drive, NW9 · Winchester Avenue, NW9 · Windover Avenue, NW9 · Windsor Crescent, HA9 · Woodfield Avenue, NW9 · Woodland Close, NW9 · Wykeham Hill, HA9 · Wyndale Avenue, NW9 ·


USING THIS MATERIAL IN OTHER ARTICLES


COMMENTS

Print-friendly version of this page

Links

Wembley Park
Facebook Page
Preston Road
Facebook Page
Hidden London
Histor­ically inclined look at the capital’s obscure attractions
Londonist
All-encompassing website
British History Online
Digital library of key printed primary and secondary sources.
Time Out
Listings magazine

Maps


John Rocque Map of Wembley, Kingsbury, Willesden and Harlesden (1762)
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers an area from Harrow in the northwest to Harlesden in the southeast.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
1 


COPYRIGHT TERMS:
Unless a source is explicitedly stated, text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Articles may be a remixes of various Wikipedia articles plus work by the website authors - original Wikipedia source can generally be accessed under the same name as the main title. This does not affect its Creative Commons attribution.

Maps upon this website are in the public domain because they are mechanical scans of public domain originals, or – from the available evidence – are so similar to such a scan or photocopy that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in public domain for the following reason:
Public domain Maps used are in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.
This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights.

This tag is designed for use where there may be a need to assert that any enhancements (eg brightness, contrast, colour-matching, sharpening) are in themselves insufficiently creative to generate a new copyright. It can be used where it is unknown whether any enhancements have been made, as well as when the enhancements are clear but insufficient. For usage, see Commons:When to use the PD-scan tag.