Bow

Suburb, existing until now

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Suburb · Bow · E3 ·
APRIL
16
2017

Bow lies at the heart of London’s East End.

The former Bryant & May match factory
Credit: Fin Fahey
The area was formerly known as Stratford, and "Bow" is an abbreviation of the medieval name Stratford-atte-Bow, in which "Bow" refers to a bridge built in the early 12th century. Bow is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and a section of the district is part of the park.

Old Ford, and with it Fish Island, are usually taken to be part of Bow, but Bromley-by-Bow (historically and officially just ’Bromley’) immediately to the south, is a separate locality. These distinctions have their roots in historic parish boundaries.

Stratforde was first recorded as a settlement in 1177. The ford originally lay on a pre-Roman trackway at Old Ford about 600 metres to the north, but when the Romans decided on Colchester as the initial capital for their occupation, the road was upgraded to run from the area of London Bridge, as one of the first paved Roman roads in Britain. The ’paved way’ is likely to refer to the presence of a stone causeway across the marshes, which formed a part of the crossing.

In 1110 Matilda, wife of Henry I, reputedly took a tumble at the ford on her way to Barking Abbey, and ordered a distinctively bow-shaped, three-arched bridge to be built over the River Lea, The like of which had not been seen before; the area became known variously as Stradford of the Bow, Stratford of the Bow, Stratford the Bow, Stratforde the Bowe, and Stratford-atte-Bow’ (at the Bow) which over time was shortened to Bow to distinguish it from Stratford Langthorne on the Essex bank of the Lea. Land and Abbey Mill were given to Barking Abbey for maintenance of the bridge, who also maintained a chapel on the bridge dedicated to St Katherine, occupied until the 15th century by a hermit. This endowment was later administered by Stratford Langthorne Abbey. By 1549, this route had become known as The Kings Way.

Permission was given to build a chapel of ease to allow the residents a local place to worship. The land was granted by Edward III, on the King’s highway, thus beginning a tradition of island church building. In 1556, during the reign of Mary I of England and under the authority of Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, many people were brought by cart from Newgate and burned at the stake in front of Bow Church, in one of the many swings of the English Reformation.

During the 17th century Bow and the Essex bank became a centre for the slaughter and butchery of cattle for the City market. This meant a ready supply of cattle bones, and local entrepreneurs Thomas Frye and Edward Heylyn developed a means to mix this with clay and create a form of fine porcelain, said to rival the best from abroad, known as Bow Porcelain.

The Bow China Works prospered, employing some 300 artists and hands, until about 1770, when one of its founders died. By 1776 all of its moulds and implements were transferred to a manufacturer in Derby. In 1867, during drainage operations at the match factory of Bell & Black at Bell Road, St. Leonard’s Street, the foundations of one of the kilns were discovered, with a large quantity of ’wasters’ and fragments of broken pottery. The houses close by were then called China Row, but now lie beneath modern housing. Chemical analysis of the firing remains showed them to contain high quantities of bone-ash, pre-dating the claim of Josiah Spode to have invented the bone china process.

In 1843 the engineer William Bridges Adams founded the Fairfield Locomotive Works, where he specialized in light engines, steam railcars (or railmotors) and inspection trolleys, including the Fairfield steam carriage for the Bristol and Exeter Railway and the Enfield for the Eastern Counties Railway. The business failed and the works closed circa 1872, later becoming the factory of Bryant and May.

Bow was the headquarters of the North London Railway, which opened its locomotive and carriage workshops in 1853. There were two stations, Old Ford and Bow. During World War 2 the North London Railway branch from Dalston to Poplar through Bow was so badly damaged that it was abandoned.

Bow station opened in 1850 and was rebuilt in 1870 in a grand style, designed by Edwin Henry Horne and featuring a concert hall that was 100 ft long (30 m) and 40 ft wide (12 m). This became The Bow and Bromley Institute, then in 1887 the East London Technical College and a Salvation Army hall in 1911. From the 1930s it was used as the Embassy Billiard Hall and after the war became the Bow Palais, but was demolished in 1956 after a fire.

The safety match industry became established in Bow. In 1888, a match girls’ strike occurred at the Bryant and May match factory in Fairfield Road. This was a forerunner of the suffragette movement fight for women’s rights and also the trade union movement. The factory was rebuilt in 1911 and the brick entrance includes a depiction of Noah’s Ark and the word ’Security’ used as a trademark on the matchboxes. Match production ceased in 1979 and the building is now private apartments known as the Bow Quarter.

Bow underwent extensive urban re-generation including the replacement or improvement of council homes, such redevelopment and rejuvenation coinciding with the staging of the 2012 Olympic Games at nearby Stratford.


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The former Bryant & May match factory
Fin Fahey

THE STREETS OF BOW
Alfred Street, E3 Alfred Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Annie Besant Close, E3 Annie Besant Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Armagh Road, E3 Armagh Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Arrow Road, E3 Arrow Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Autumn Street, E3 Autumn Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Baldock Street, E3 Baldock Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Beachy Road, E3 Beachy Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Benworth Street, E3 Benworth Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Blackthorn Street, E3 Blackthorn Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Blondin Street, E3 Blondin Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Bow Arts Lane, E3 Bow Arts Lane is a road in the E3 postcode area
Bow Exchange, E3 Bow Exchange is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Brickfield Road, E14 Brickfield Road is a road in the E14 postcode area
Brickfield Road, E3 Brickfield Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Brock Place, E3 Brock Place is a road in the E3 postcode area
Bromley High Street, E3 Bromley High Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Bruce Road, E3 Bruce Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Brymay Close, E3 Brymay Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Campbell Road, E3 Campbell Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Candy Street, E3 Candy Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Cardigan Road, E3 Cardigan Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Caxton Grove, E3 Caxton Grove is a road in the E3 postcode area
Cedar Close, E3 Cedar Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Coborn Road, E3 Coborn Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Coborn Street, E3 Coborn Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Copton Close, E3 Copton Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Cranwell Close, E3 Cranwell Close is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Crown Close, E3 Crown Close is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Dace Road, E3 Dace Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Devas Street, E3 Devas Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Devons Road, E3 Devons Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Douro Street, E3 Douro Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Dye House Lane, E3 Dye House Lane is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Dyehouse Lane, E3 Dyehouse Lane is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
East Cross Route, E3 East Cross Route is a road in the E3 postcode area
Eastside Mews, E3 Eastside Mews is a road in the E3 postcode area
Edgar Road, E3 Edgar Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Empson Street, E3 Empson Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Fairfield Road, E3 Fairfield Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Fern Street, E3 Fern Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Four Seasons Close, E3 Four Seasons Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Furze Street, E3 Furze Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Gale Street, E3 Gale Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Garrison Road, E3 Garrison Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Gillender Street, E3 Gillender Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Glaucus Street, E3 Glaucus Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Grace Street, E3 Grace Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Greenway, E3 Greenway is a road in the E3 postcode area
Hancock Road, E15 Hancock Road is a road in the E15 postcode area
Hancock Road, E3 Hancock Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Harley Grove, E3 Harley Grove is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Hartfield Terrace, E3 Hartfield Terrace is a road in the E3 postcode area
Hawgood Street, E3 Hawgood Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Hereford Road, E3 Hereford Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Hewison Street, E3 Hewison Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Heylyn Square, E3 Heylyn Square is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Iceland Road, E3 Iceland Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Jebb Street, E3 Jebb Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Jodrell Road, E3 Jodrell Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Lawrence Close, E3 Lawrence Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Lefevre Walk, E3 Lefevre Walk is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Legion Terrace, E3 Legion Terrace is a road in the E3 postcode area
Lexington Building, E3 Lexington Building is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Maddams Street, E3 Maddams Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Mallard Point, E3 Mallard Point is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Malmesbury Road, E3 Malmesbury Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Maltings Close, E3 Maltings Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Manhattan Building, E3 Manhattan Building is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Maverton Road, E3 Maverton Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Monier Road, E3 Monier Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Morville Street, E3 Morville Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Mostyn Grove, E3 Mostyn Grove is a road in the E3 postcode area
Nelson Walk, E3 Nelson Walk is a road in the E3 postcode area
Nelson Walk, SE16 Nelson Walk is a road in the SE16 postcode area
Ollerton Green, E3 Ollerton Green is a road in the E3 postcode area
Ordell Road, E3 Ordell Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Otis Street, E3 Otis Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Pancras Way, E3 Pancras Way is a road in the E3 postcode area
Parnell Road, E3 Parnell Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Patrick Connolly Gardens, E3 Patrick Connolly Gardens is a road in the E3 postcode area
Powis Road, E3 Powis Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Priory Street, E3 Priory Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Purdy Street, E3 Purdy Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Rainhill Way, E3 Rainhill Way is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Redwood Close, E3 Redwood Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Reeves Road, E3 Reeves Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Regent Square, E3 Regent Square is a road in the E3 postcode area
Remus Road, E3 Remus Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Ridgdale Street, E3 Ridgdale Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Roach Point Bridge, E3 Roach Point Bridge is a road in the E3 postcode area
Roach Road, E3 Roach Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Saint Leonard’s Street, E3 This is a street in the E3 postcode area
Shortwall, E3 Shortwall is a road in the E3 postcode area
Smeed Road, E3 Smeed Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Springwood Close, E3 Springwood Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
St Leonards Street, E3 St Leonards Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Stour Road, E3 Stour Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Stroudley Walk, E3 Stroudley Walk is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Taft Way, E3 Taft Way is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Talwin Street, E3 Talwin Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Tamar Close, E3 Tamar Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
The Mill, E15 The Mill is one of the streets of London in the E15 postal area.
Thomas Fyre Drive, E3 Thomas Fyre Drive is a road in the E3 postcode area
Three Mill Lane, E3 Three Mill Lane is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Tibbatt’s Road, E3 Tibbatt’s Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Tiber Close, E3 Tiber Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Towcester Road, E3 Towcester Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Tredegar Road, E3 Tredegar Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Trellis Square, E3 Trellis Square is a road in the E3 postcode area
Truman Way, E3 Truman Way is a road in the E3 postcode area
Twelvetrees Crescent, E16 Twelvetrees Crescent is a road in the E16 postcode area
Usher Road, E3 Usher Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Violet Road, E3 Violet Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Voysey Square, E3 Voysey Square is a road in the E3 postcode area
Washington Close, E3 Washington Close is a road in the E3 postcode area
Watts Grove, E3 Watts Grove is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Wendon Street, E3 Wendon Street is a road in the E3 postcode area
Whitton Walk, E3 Whitton Walk is a road in the E3 postcode area
Wick Lane, E3 Wick Lane is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
William Guy Gardens, E3 William Guy Gardens is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Wrexham Road, E3 Wrexham Road is a road in the E3 postcode area
Wyke Road, E3 Wyke Road is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.
Yeo Street, E3 Yeo Street is one of the streets of London in the E3 postal area.



 

Bow

Bow lies at the heart of London’s East End.

The area was formerly known as Stratford, and "Bow" is an abbreviation of the medieval name Stratford-atte-Bow, in which "Bow" refers to a bridge built in the early 12th century. Bow is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and a section of the district is part of the park.

Old Ford, and with it Fish Island, are usually taken to be part of Bow, but Bromley-by-Bow (historically and officially just ’Bromley’) immediately to the south, is a separate locality. These distinctions have their roots in historic parish boundaries.

Stratforde was first recorded as a settlement in 1177. The ford originally lay on a pre-Roman trackway at Old Ford about 600 metres to the north, but when the Romans decided on Colchester as the initial capital for their occupation, the road was upgraded to run from the area of London Bridge, as one of the first paved Roman roads in Britain. The ’paved way’ is likely to refer to the presence of a stone causeway across the marshes, which formed a part of the crossing.

In 1110 Matilda, wife of Henry I, reputedly took a tumble at the ford on her way to Barking Abbey, and ordered a distinctively bow-shaped, three-arched bridge to be built over the River Lea, The like of which had not been seen before; the area became known variously as Stradford of the Bow, Stratford of the Bow, Stratford the Bow, Stratforde the Bowe, and Stratford-atte-Bow’ (at the Bow) which over time was shortened to Bow to distinguish it from Stratford Langthorne on the Essex bank of the Lea. Land and Abbey Mill were given to Barking Abbey for maintenance of the bridge, who also maintained a chapel on the bridge dedicated to St Katherine, occupied until the 15th century by a hermit. This endowment was later administered by Stratford Langthorne Abbey. By 1549, this route had become known as The Kings Way.

Permission was given to build a chapel of ease to allow the residents a local place to worship. The land was granted by Edward III, on the King’s highway, thus beginning a tradition of island church building. In 1556, during the reign of Mary I of England and under the authority of Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, many people were brought by cart from Newgate and burned at the stake in front of Bow Church, in one of the many swings of the English Reformation.

During the 17th century Bow and the Essex bank became a centre for the slaughter and butchery of cattle for the City market. This meant a ready supply of cattle bones, and local entrepreneurs Thomas Frye and Edward Heylyn developed a means to mix this with clay and create a form of fine porcelain, said to rival the best from abroad, known as Bow Porcelain.

The Bow China Works prospered, employing some 300 artists and hands, until about 1770, when one of its founders died. By 1776 all of its moulds and implements were transferred to a manufacturer in Derby. In 1867, during drainage operations at the match factory of Bell & Black at Bell Road, St. Leonard’s Street, the foundations of one of the kilns were discovered, with a large quantity of ’wasters’ and fragments of broken pottery. The houses close by were then called China Row, but now lie beneath modern housing. Chemical analysis of the firing remains showed them to contain high quantities of bone-ash, pre-dating the claim of Josiah Spode to have invented the bone china process.

In 1843 the engineer William Bridges Adams founded the Fairfield Locomotive Works, where he specialized in light engines, steam railcars (or railmotors) and inspection trolleys, including the Fairfield steam carriage for the Bristol and Exeter Railway and the Enfield for the Eastern Counties Railway. The business failed and the works closed circa 1872, later becoming the factory of Bryant and May.

Bow was the headquarters of the North London Railway, which opened its locomotive and carriage workshops in 1853. There were two stations, Old Ford and Bow. During World War 2 the North London Railway branch from Dalston to Poplar through Bow was so badly damaged that it was abandoned.

Bow station opened in 1850 and was rebuilt in 1870 in a grand style, designed by Edwin Henry Horne and featuring a concert hall that was 100 ft long (30 m) and 40 ft wide (12 m). This became The Bow and Bromley Institute, then in 1887 the East London Technical College and a Salvation Army hall in 1911. From the 1930s it was used as the Embassy Billiard Hall and after the war became the Bow Palais, but was demolished in 1956 after a fire.

The safety match industry became established in Bow. In 1888, a match girls’ strike occurred at the Bryant and May match factory in Fairfield Road. This was a forerunner of the suffragette movement fight for women’s rights and also the trade union movement. The factory was rebuilt in 1911 and the brick entrance includes a depiction of Noah’s Ark and the word ’Security’ used as a trademark on the matchboxes. Match production ceased in 1979 and the building is now private apartments known as the Bow Quarter.

Bow underwent extensive urban re-generation including the replacement or improvement of council homes, such redevelopment and rejuvenation coinciding with the staging of the 2012 Olympic Games at nearby Stratford.
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