Clarendon Crescent was said to be the longest road in London without a turning.
By 1861 Desborough Lodge
and Westbourne Farm
had been demolished and Clarendon Street, Woodchester Street and Cirencester Street
were build on their lands.
There was a rapid social decline in the streets between the railway and the canal. Subletting to weekly lodgers had made Brindley Street
the most overcrowded in Paddington, with over 3 people to a room. By 1869, when the worst areas were near the canal basin at Paddington Green.
Clarendon Street (later Crescent) had 17 people per house on average. In Clarendon Street "where the more respectable women did laundry work, there were thieves and prostitutes". Subletting had gone so far that a room might have different tenants by day and by night and could only be controlled by declaring buildings to be lodging houses. Such decay was attributed in 1899 to the canal, as elsewhere in London, to isolation arising from a lack of through traffic, and to the density of building.
The road was renamed from Clarendon Street to Clarendon Crescent, probably as part of the 1937 London-wide renaming scheme.
The borough council in 1938 had plans to clear Clarendon Crescent but the war intervened. The worst slums, between the railway and the canal from Warwick Crescent
to Clarendon Crescent, were transformed by the L.C.C. post war.
Under a scheme of 1958, and affecting 6700 residents, half of the land was to be used for 1127 dwellings, of which 946 were to be in new blocks and the others in renovated houses; the rest was to be used for shops, garages, schools and other institutions. A canalside walk and 8 acres of badly needed open space took over the site of Clarendon Crescent.
The Warwick estate, as it came to be called, was opened in 1962. The scheme, together with the alignment of Westway
along part of Harrow Road
, caused the disappearance of nearly all the streets from Delamere Terrace
and Blomfield Villas
westward to Waverley Road
A view along Clarendon Street, Paddington, houses now demolished, looking west with St Mary Magdalene’s Church to left (1964)
English Heritage/John Gay
The story of the building of a suburb.
|VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1750s|
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.
|VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1800s|
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.
|VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1830s|
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.
|VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1860s|
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.
|VIEW THE WESTBOURNE GREEN AREA IN THE 1900s|
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.
Westbourne Green had only a few houses by 1745, mostly south of the point where Harrow Road had a junction with Westbourne Green Lane (also known as Black Lion Lane) running northward from the Uxbridge Road. A footpath later called Bishop’s Walk (eventually Bishop’s Bridge Road) provided a short cut to Paddington Green. The Red Lion, where Harrow Road bridged the Westbourne, and another inn were recorded in 1730. The second inn was probably one called the Jolly Gardeners in 1760 and the Three Jolly Gardeners in 1770, near the Harrow Road junction, where it probably made way for the Spotted Dog.
The early 19th-century village contained five notable residences: Westbourne Place, west of Black Lion Lane at its junction with Harrow Road, and, from south to north on the east side of Harrow Road, Desborough Lodge, Westbourne Farm, Bridge House, and Westbourne Manor House. Bridge House was built c. 1805 by the architect John White, owner of Westbourne Farm.
Westbourne Green had a very refined air in 1795 and was still considered a beautiful rural place in 1820. The Grand Junction canal, passing north of the village between the grounds of Westbourne Farm and Bridge House, was a scenic enhancement, later used to attract expensive building to the area. Although housing was spreading along Black Lion Lane, it had not reached Westbourne Green by 1828, when a house later called Elm Lodge stood north-west of Westbourne Manor House. There was also a short row, later called Belsize Villas, alone to the west on the south side of Harrow Road at Orme’s Green, by 1830. The main addition was at the southern end of the village, opposite Bishop’s Walk, where Pickering Terrace (later part of Porchester Road), backed by a double row called Pickering Place, formed a compact block of cottages amid the fields.
The cutting of the G.W.R. line across the middle of Westbourne Green was begun in 1836, necessitating a slight northward realignment of Harrow Road east of its junction with Black Lion Lane, where a turnpike gate was moved. Since the railway obstructed the Paddington green end of Bishop’s Walk, the footpath was replaced by Bishop’s Road, soon extended westward as Westbourne Grove. (Although no large houses were demolished, the railway passed close to Westbourne Park, from which Lord Hill moved out. By 1840 several new roads were projected, including Westbourne Grove. Houses had been built there by 1842, when the Lock hospital, giving its name to the Lock bridge where Harrow Road crossed the canal, stood opposite Westbourne Manor House to the north. The centre of the area, however, along Harrow Road and on either side of the railway, remained empty.
Housing spread in the 1840s, mainly south of the railway. The eastern end of Bishop’s Road was built up and at first called Westbourne Place, where the publisher George Smith was visited by Charlotte Bronte in 1848 and 1849. Further north, residential growth was curtailed by the G.W.R. depots and sidings. Immediately to the west, where the Paddington Estate straddled the Westbourne, roads were laid out, with bridges over the railway to link them with Harrow Road. Holy Trinity church was finished in 1846 and Orsett Terrace, Gloucester Crescent (later the northernmost part of Gloucester Terrace), and Porchester Square had been planned by 1851. No. 37 Gloucester Gardens, Bishop’s Road, was the London home of the architect Decimus Burton by 1855. Most of the area between Bishop’s Road and the railway had been filled by 1855, except the site of Penny’s House, which was to be taken in 1871 for Royal Oak station.
A builder, William Scantlebury, erected much of the neighbourhood around Orsett Terrace and Gloucester Crescent, where he took leases in 1849-50 and 1852 respectively. John Scantlebury of Porchester Terrace North built part of Porchester Square, where many plots were subleased by George Wyatt between 1853 and 1855.
Farther west building had already begun for William Kinnaird Jenkins, a lawyer who also acquired part of the Ladbroke estate from W. H. Jenkins and was responsible for laying out Kensal New Town. Houses were planned for W. K. Jenkins along both sides of Westbourne Grove, west of Pickering Place, in 1838 and along an extension of Westbourne Grove in 1840. They were detached villas, like those to be built for him in Newton Road in 1846, when he also had plans for Hereford Road. More land in Hereford Road was leased out by the Paddington Estate between 1853 and 1855, much of it for terraces by J. P. Waterson, a Bayswater builder, who assigned his interest in several sites to John Wicking Phillips. To the north, Westbourne Park and its grounds made way for large semidetached villas in Westbourne Park Road and, beside the railway, Westbourne Park Villas. No. 16 Westbourne Park Villas from 1863 to 1867 was the intermittent home of Thomas Hardy, who also lived briefly at no. 4 Celbridge Place (later Porchester Road) and in Newton Road. Fields survived between Westbourne Park Road and Newton Road in 1851 but had been covered with modest terraces by 1855, when St. Stephen’s church was being built.
Between the railway and the canal, the pace of building and the social pattern were more varied. The eastern part, where Delamere Terrace lined the canal and Warwick Crescent overlooked the pool, was begun as an extension of Little Venice. Leases for 13 houses in Westbourne Terrace Road were taken in 1847 by G. L. Taylor, architect of some of the grandest houses in Tyburnia and Maida Vale, who also built in Blomfield Terrace, along Harrow Road. Other lessees included William Buddle, for 19 houses in Blomfield Street (later Villas) and Delamere Terrace in 1851 and 12 in Warwick Crescent, where plots were assigned to him by G. L. Taylor in 1852. Early residents included Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s sister Arabel Barrett in Delamere Terrace; in order to be near her Robert Browning moved from lodgings at no. 1 Chichester Road and made his English home at no. 19 Warwick Crescent from 1862 until 1887.
Farther west, beyond Ranelagh (from 1938 Lord Hill’s) Road, building was slightly delayed by the survival until after 1855 of Desborough Lodge and Westbourne Farm. Brindley Street, Alfred Road, and their neighbours already formed densely packed terraces west of the Lock Bridge and Harrow Road. By 1861 Desborough Lodge and Westbourne Farm had made way for Clarendon, Woodchester and Cirencester Streets, whose small houses resembled those around Brindley Street rather than the stately terraces to the east.
North of the canal, the workhouse was built next to the Lock in 1846-7. Building, although not the imposing crescent planned in 1847, stretched from there along the south side of Harrow Road to Woodfield Road at Orme’s Green by 1855.
The 1860s saw housing, which had ended in 1855 at St. Stephen’s Church and Hereford Road, spread to the Kensington boundary.
North of the canal the site of Westbourne Manor House was built over from 1867 and Amberley Road with its timber wharves was built along the canal bank. The whole of Westbourne Green thus came to be built up.