The Underground Map


 HOME  ·  ARTICLE  OPENSTREETMAP  GOOGLE MAP  STREETS  BLOG 
(51.53106 -0.21449, 51.537 -0.211) 
MAP YEAR:1750180018301860190019502021Remove markers
Featured · Queens Park Estate ·
JUNE
20
2021

The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.

In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top left and then clicking Reset Location.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.

You can also view historical maps of London - click on the "pile of paper" control on the top right of a page's map to change to a particular decade.

Latest on The Underground Map...
Oliphant Street, W10
Oliphant Street was the final alphabetical street on the original Queen’s Park Estate naming scheme. The Manor and Parish of Chelsea owned an enclave - covering Kensal Town and Queen’s Park - until 1901 when it was divided between Kensington and Paddington. Kensal Town went to the former and the other side of the Harrow Road to the latter.

The north section was developed in 1875 by the Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company, who were the landlords until 1964. The north-south streets of their grid were numbered 1-6 and euphemistically entitled ’avenues’ : First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Avenues. The remaining streets were simply labelled A Street through to O Street.

Eight years later it was decided that even artisans and labourers deserved a little better. A became Alperton, after the Company’s brickyard in Middlesex, and was followed by Barfett, Caird, Droop (after H R. Droop, Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company Director 1877-1883), Enbrook, Farrant (Sir Richard Farrant, Director 1877-1906), Galton (probably i...

»more

JUNE
6
2021

 

Turk’s Head
The Turk’s Head was one of two Wapping pubs of the same name It was situated beside Union Stairs and had the grim task assigned to it of briefly hosting prisoners on their journey to Execution Dock. They would be allowed one quart of ale before departure.

Its address was 30 Wapping High Street (at number 326 on the same street before Victorian renumbering).

Its rather un-PC name derives from many such names coined during the Crusades. Any pub called ‘The Turk’s Head’ or ‘The Saracen’s Head’ is a reference to that period.

It had a dining room by 1940 but the pub was destroyed in the Blitz.
»read full article


JUNE
5
2021

 

Abbotsbury Road, W14
Abbotsbury Road runs between Melbury Road and the road known as Holland Park Abbotsbury Road takes its name from one of the Dorset estates of the Earl of Ilchester. It is exclusively residential.

It is a wide tree-lined street and most houses have off street parking – some with their own garages. The road has humps in it to slow down the traffic. Traffic can go both ways. The south end is very close to the shops in Kensington High Street, and the north end to the shops in Holland Park Avenue. Holland Park itself is next to the road.

Work began in the early years of the 20th century, but only Nos. 3-9 odd, and 8-10 and 24-28 (even) were built before the Second World War.

During the 1960s houses and blocks were built on the west side of Abbotsbury Road. These include Abbotsbury House, a 10-storey block of flats, and Abbotsbury Close, a series of small crescents with houses and landscaped gardens, designed by Stone Toms and Partners and built by Wates Builders.

The brick houses are fairly uniform in...
»more


JUNE
4
2021

 

Victoria Embankment, EC4Y
Victoria Embankment is part of the Thames Embankment scheme of 19th-century civil engineering that reclaimed land next to the River Thames The Victoria Embankment was primarily designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette with architectural work on the embankment wall and river stairs by Charles Henry Driver. Started in 1862, it incorporates the main low level interceptor sewer and the underground District Line over which a wide road and riverside walkway were built. In total, Bazalgette’s scheme reclaimed 22 acres of land from the river. It prevented flooding, such as around what had been the remnants of Thorney Island (Westminster).

Much of the granite used in the projects was brought from Lamorna Cove in Cornwall.

The named named Victoria Embankment runs from the Houses of Parliament to Blackfriars Bridge. It incorporates gardens and open space collectively known as the Embankment Gardens.

Some parts of the Embankment were rebuilt in the 20th century due to wartime bomb damage or natural disasters such as the 1928 Thames flood.
»read full article


JUNE
3
2021

 

Carmelite Street, EC4Y
Carmelite Street continues south from Whitefriars Street, which itself is just off Fleet Street Carmelite Street is a very narrow road and runs down a slope to its south end, where it meets the Victoria Embankment. Named in 1901, it commemorates the old foundation of the Carmelite or Whitefriars monastery here. Before 1901, it had been an extension of Whitefriars Street but was wharfland until the 1860s.

The street seems to have begun as an alley to serve ship berthings which by the 1860s had been repurposed to lead to the new Sir Joseph Bazalgette-designed Embankment.

The buildings which now stand on Carmelite Street were mostly constructed after the Second World War. There are also some very old buildings such as The Harrow, a public house said to have been frequented by Evening News reporters.

Founded by a City merchant, William Ward, in 1881, the City of London School for Girls opened in Carmelite Street in 1894 at a time when there was so little faith in academic education for girls that the building was designed so that it cou...
»more





LATEST LONDON-WIDE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROJECT

Comment
Peter H Davies   
Added: 17 Jun 2021 09:33 GMT   

Ethelburga Estate
The Ethelburga Estate - named after Ethelburga Road - was an LCC development dating between 1963–65. According to the Wikipedia, it has a "pleasant knitting together of a series of internal squares". I have to add that it’s extremely dull :)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reply
Lived here
Norman Norrington   
Added: 8 Jun 2021 08:08 GMT   

Blechynden Street, W10
Lived here #40 1942-1967

Reply
Comment
Brenda Newton   
Added: 5 Jun 2021 07:17 GMT   

Hewer Street W10
John Nodes Undertakers Hewer Street W10

Reply

   
Added: 3 Jun 2021 15:50 GMT   

All Bar One
The capitalisation is wrong

Reply
Comment
   
Added: 2 Jun 2021 16:58 GMT   

Parachute bomb 1941
Charles Thomas Bailey of 82 Morley Road was killed by the parachute bomb March 1941

Reply

   
Added: 1 Jun 2021 12:41 GMT   

Abbeville Road (1940 street directory)
North west side
1A Clarke A S Ltd, motor engineers
15 Plumbers, Glaziers & Domestic Engineers Union
25 Dixey Edward, florist
27 Vicary Miss Doris J, newsagent
29 Stenning John Andrew, dining rooms
31 Clarke & Williams, builders
33 Hill Mrs Theodora, confectioner
35 Golding W & sons, corn dealers
... here is Shandon road ...
37 Pennington Mrs Eliz Harvie, wine & spirit merchant
39 Westminster Catering Co Ltd, ham, beef & tongue dealers
41 Masters A (Clapham) Ltd, butchers
43 Thomas Euan Ltd, grocers
45 Garrett C T & Co Ltd, undertakers
47 Mayle T & Sons, fishmongers
49 Mayles Ltd, fruiterers
51 & 73 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
53 United Dairies (London) Ltd
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
55 Norris William Lennox, baker
57 Silver Star Laundry Ltd
59 Thorp John, oilman
61 Bidgood Leonard George, boot makers
63 Wilkie Rt Miln, chemist
65 Gander George Albert Isaac, hairdresser
67 Harris Alfred William, greengrocer
69 & 71 Lambert Ernest & Son Ltd, grocers
... here is Hambolt road ...
73 & 51 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
75 Cambourn Frederick, butcher
77 Siggers Clement, chemist
77 Post, Money Order, Telephone Call & Telegraph Office & Savings Bank
79 Hemmings William, baker
... here is Elms road ...
85 Cornish Joseph
91 Bedding Mrs
151 Johnson Mrs H K
157 Robinson Albert Ernest, grainer
173 Yardleys London & Provincial Stores Ltd, wine & spirit merchants
175 Clark Alfred, butcher
175A Morley Douglas Frederick, confectioner
... here is Crescent lane ...
... her is St Alphonsus road ...

South east side
... here is Trouville road ...
4 Bossy Miss, private school
... here are Bonneville gardens ...
24 Osborn Charles Edward, ladies hairdresser
24 Hall H Ltd, builders
24A Walton Lodge Laundry Ltd
... here are Shandon road & Abbeville mansions ...
28 Copley Fred Smith, chemist
30 Finch H G Ltd, laundry
32 Carter William Alfred, furniture dealer
34 Spriggs Charles & Co, wireless supplies dealer
36 Miles Frederick William, confectioner
38 Pitman Frederick, hairdresser
40 Rowe Frederick F, valeting service
42 Modridge Edward J, oilman
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
44 Southorn Albert, butcher
46 Brown Ernest, fruiterer
48 Stanley Mrs A A, confectioner
50 Fryatt Owen, delixatessen store
52 Benbrooks, domestic stores
54 Davis William Clifford, boot repairer
56 Blogg Alfred, newsagent
58 Rowlands Thomas & Sons, dairy
... here are Hambalt, Elms, Franconia, Caldervale & Leppoc roads ...
124 Clarke Frederick, decorator
... here are Crescent lane, Briarwood road & Park hill ...

Reply
Comment
Boo Horton    
Added: 31 May 2021 13:39 GMT   

Angel & Trumpet, Stepney Green
The Angel & Trumpet Public House in Stepney Green was run by my ancestors in the 1930’s. Unfortunately, it was a victim on WWII and was badly damaged and subsequently demolished. I have one photograph that I believe to bethe pub, but it doesn’t show much more that my Great Aunt cleaning the steps.

Reply
Comment
MCNALLY    
Added: 17 May 2021 09:42 GMT   

Blackfriars (1959 - 1965)
I lived in Upper Ground from 1959 to 1964 I was 6 years old my parents Vince and Kitty run the Pub The Angel on the corner of Upper Ground and Bodies Bridge. I remember the ceiling of the cellar was very low and almost stretched the length of Bodies Bridge. The underground trains run directly underneath the pub. If you were down in the cellar when a train was coming it was quite frightening

Reply

OCTOBER
31
2015

 

The Brittania
The Brittania was situated on the corner of Clarendon Road and Portland Road, W11. Latterly known as "The Clarendon", it became a restaurant in the 2010s. It had been in business as a public house since about 1869.

The former Britannia public house at 123a Clarendon Road was marred by the shopfront that was added to it (which is now a restaurant), but the high late Victorian pub architecture can be seen clearly on the upper floors. The house next door at No. 121 used to be the Clarendon Mission Hall in the early 1900s.
»read full article


OCTOBER
29
2015

 

Rackham Street, W10
Rackham Street is a road that disappeared from the streetscape of London W10 in 1951. During the night of 27/8 September 1940, after Nazi incendiary bombs, the central part of Rackham Street become a huge crater (though only one person was killed).

As the Luftwaffe aimed for the railway line and gas works, the nearby Princess Louise Hospital was also bombed three times and around a hundred incendiaries hit the St Charles convent and grounds.

In the early 1950s, the rest of Rackham Street was demolished to make way for the Balfour of Burleigh estate. Rackham Street left no trace - not even a name.
»read full article


OCTOBER
26
2015

 

Aldermaston Street, W10
Aldermaston Street is a lost street of North Kensington It was one of the streets which disappeared after the Westway was built though it didn’t lie directly on the route. Instead its footprint covers what is now the Westway Sports Centre.
»read full article


OCTOBER
25
2015

 

Adair Road junction with Southam Street (1932)
A wet day in London W10. This image shows the junction of Adair Road and Southam Street on a very wet day in 1932. The site was the future position of Southam House, built after the Second World War.
»read full article


OCTOBER
23
2015

 

Down Street
Down Street, also known as Down Street (Mayfair), is a disused station on the London Underground, located in Mayfair. It was opened in 1907 by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway. It was latterly served by the Piccadilly line and was situated between Dover Street (now named Green Park) and Hyde Park Corner stations.

The station was little used and trains often passed through it without stopping. Its lack of patronage coupled with its proximity to other stations resulted in its closure in 1932. During the Second World War it was used as a bunker by prime minister Winston Churchill and his War Cabinet. The station building survives today and is close to Down Street’s junction with Piccadilly. Part of it is now converted to a retail outlet.
»read full article


OCTOBER
22
2015

 

Cherwell Street, SW8
Cherwell Street was built by Frederick Haynes in the mid-Victoria era. In 1862, a speculator called Frederick Haines moved to build on a plot of land called "9/10 Cross Road Shot". Five parties were involved: Joseph Clarke, Riverhill near Sevenoaks; Arthur Pott of Tunbridge Wells; William Williams of Lincolns Inn Fields; Henry Stevenson, Shepherds Bush; and Francis Woodgate, captain in the Life Guards, of Sevenoaks.

There was no expense in laying out roads, although drainage would of course have been required. Houses were then built on plots by builders.

1-6 Culvert Road were leased to George Bateman, a Brixton builder, in Nov. 1862 to March 1863. An extra house - la - was inserted and leased to Robert Rice on 23 December 1867.

1-5 Carlton Cottages in the main road were leased to Henry Hunt, builder on 20 January 1866.

Haines acquired two parcels of enclosed land, occupied by Henry Shailer and Graham on 16 April 1862, involving the same parties as at Culvert Road.

The estate pla...
»more


OCTOBER
21
2015

 

1879 Royal Agricultural Society Show
Washout summers are not only a modern phenomenon The 1879 Royal Agricultural Society of England’s annual show was held on an area which later became Queen’s Park.

The Kilburn show was opened on 30 June 1879 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The 100 acre site was chosen for its proximity to the railway network, Queen’s Park Station having opened on 2 June 1879 on the main line from London to Birmingham, just in time to facilitate the movement of heavy machinery and stock.

By the 1870s the annual shows had become major events and the Kilburn show was to be the largest every held. It saw an entry of 11,878 implements, 2879 livestock entries and over 187,000 visitors. There were many international entries and there was a Royal Box which was part of an arena seating 3000 people, the winning cattle and horses were paraded here every day.

The Royal Agricultural Society of England was formed in 1838 to promote the potential of science for raising agricultural productivity. Annual agricu...
»more


OCTOBER
18
2015

 

Royal Garden Hotel
Royal Garden Hotel is a 5 star hotel in London, England. It is located in the heart of Kensington, on Kensington High Street, overlooking Kensington Palace and gardens. The palace, Hyde Park and the Royal Albert Hall can all be seen from the hotel.

What is now the Royal Garden Hotel was originally built in the 1800s under the name of the Palace Hotel with a completely different image and layout. As part of the war effort in the 1900s it was taken over and used as the headquarters for the Woman’s Royal Voluntary Service.

In the 1960s, the hotel was demolished and completely rebuilt under the design of Colonel Richard Seifert. After five years of construction the hotel re-opened in 1965 under the Royal Garden Hotel brand, as it stands today. In 1966 it hosted the official reception celebrating England’s victory in the World Cup final.

Read the Royal Garden Hotel entry on the Wikipedia...
»read full article


OCTOBER
11
2015

 

Chrisp Street Market
Chrisp Street Market is the central marketplace and town centre of Poplar. It was the first purpose-built pedestrian shopping area in the United Kingdom, rebuilt as part of the 1951 Festival of Britain. It features shops, a prominent clock tower, pubs, cafes, flats, and 80 market stalls.
»read full article


OCTOBER
9
2015

 

Ellerdale Road, NW3
Ellerdale Road was added to the streetscape of Hampstead in 1874. The architect T. K. Green built no. 2 Ellerdale Road, ’a defiantly Gothic house’ for himself in c. 1890. Several houses in Ellerdale Road have a sunflower motif, including no. 6 which Richard Norman Shaw built for himself in 1875 and occupied until his death in 1912.
»read full article


OCTOBER
8
2015

 

University College School
University College School, generally known as UCS, is an independent school charity situated in northwest London. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution’s progressive and secular views. According to the Good Schools Guide, the school "Achieves impressive exam results with a relaxed atmosphere." UCS moved away to new purpose-built buildings in Frognal in Hampstead in 1907, which were opened by HM King Edward VII with the Archbishop of Canterbury in attendance on July 27.
»read full article


OCTOBER
7
2015

 

St Mary’s Town and Country School
St. Mary’s Town and Country School was an independent, non-denominational, co-educational progressive day and boarding school. It was founded in Belsize Park, London in 1937. It closed at the end of 1982.

The school was owned and run by Mrs Elisabeth Paul PhD (née Selver), assisted by her husband Henry Paul, both of German-Jewish origin. In 1937 they bought the school, originally called St. Mary’s School, at 1 Belsize Avenue. The school curriculum was biased toward the learning of languages and the arts from an early age, and the pupils, aged 4 to 18 years, were primarily the children of artists, musicians, writers, film producers and actors.
»read full article


OCTOBER
7
2015

 

Wembley F.C.
Wembley Football Club is an English semi-professional football club. They currently play in the Spartan South Midlands League Premier Division. They play in red and white and are nicknamed "The Lions". This is due to the lion in the centre of the coat of arms for the old Borough of Wembley.

The club was formed in 1946 in the post-Second World War football boom, as many in the area felt it wrong that the area which held the English National Stadium didn’t have its own senior football team. It was formed from two local Junior clubs: Sudbury Rangers and Sudbury Ratepayers. As a result of their efforts, the club took the motto "A Posse Ad Esse" ("From Possibility To Reality").





Read the Wembley F.C. entry on the Wikipedia...
»read full article


OCTOBER
6
2015

 

Upper Richmond Road, SW15
Upper Richmond Road has long connected Putney with areas around Richmond. Putney village, originally clustered around the church near the bank of the River Thames, developed very rapidly during the nineteenth century. In 1849 it was said to be only partly paved - although as early as 1656 thirteen parishioners of Putney petitioned Cromwell to be allowed to pave the High Street, which they said was long and broad and could not be made by gravelling.

The westward continuation of Putney High Street, which lies at right angles to the river, is called Putney Hill, and ascends towards Wimbledon Common. High Street is crossed above Putney station by Upper Richmond Road, which leads from East Putney station to Sheen and Richmond, being joined at Barnes Common by Lower Richmond Road.

East Sheen along the road from Putney became a manor in its own right around 1500. East Sheen village was centred around Milestone Green, which lay where Upper Richmond Road now crosses Sheen Lane. The village had only 26 houses in 1617.

Aro...
»more


OCTOBER
6
2015

 

St Stephen’s Church
St. Stephen’s is a former church building, sited on Rosslyn Hill at its junction with Pond Street, a steep slope adjacent to the Royal Free Hospital. It was designed in the Neo Gothic style by Samuel Sanders Teulon and he considered it the best of the 114 churches he designed, calling it his "mighty church" – it was also the most expensive of them. He accepted the commission to design it after Sir Thomas Maryon Wilson, Lord of the Manor of Hampstead, offered Hampstead Green to be the site for a new church in 1864. From 1864 to 1867 funds were raised (the projected cost was estimated as £7,500; the final sum was actually £27,000).

Work began in January 1869, with the foundation stone being laid May that year and consecration by John Jackson the Bishop of London occurring on 31 December. It was fully complete by 1870, but was continually prone to subsidence due to its hilly site.

It held up to 1200 worshippers at its peak.

By the later 1960s concerns had been raised on structural grounds and, with maintenance costs rising and its congregation declining, it was closed for worship in 197...
»more


OCTOBER
5
2015

 

St Mary’s Church
St Mary’s Chapel, now known as St Mary’s Church, is a Grade II* listed Roman Catholic church. St Mary’s was the first Catholic church to be built in Hampstead after the English Reformation of the 16th century. The Abbé Jean-Jacques Morel, a refugee from the French Revolution, was its first pastor. The little chapel was completed in less than a year and opened its doors to worshippers for the first time in August 1816.

By this time with the final defeat of Napoleon, the majority of French refugees in Hampstead had returned to France and the congregation numbered about a hundred on a regular basis although these numbers were increased in the summer months by itinerant Irish hay-makers who worked in the fields around the village. Education was a priority for the Abbé Morel and he undertook the religious education of both boys and young women at several private Catholic schools in Hampstead. Sometime after the building of the chapel in Holly Place, two schools, one for boys and the other for girls, were set up next to the presbytery and was supported by subscrip...
»more


OCTOBER
4
2015

 

St John, Hampstead
St John-at-Hampstead is a Church of England parish church dedicated to St John the Evangelist. Hampstead was granted to the Benedictine monks of Westminster Abbey by charter in 986 but, though it is unlikely they did not place a church there soon afterwards, the first concrete record of one comes from 1312 (when it was recorded that John de Neuport was its priest) and 1333 (through a mention of a Chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary). On the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the Abbey was replaced by the Bishop of Westminster, with its first and only holder Thomas Thirlby also serving as St John’s rector. Thirlby appointed Thomas Chapelyne to be St John’s vicar in 1545, but the see was abolished in 1551 by Edward VI, with the manor and benefice of Hampstead being granted to Sir Thomas Wrothe. The church of this era was part in stone and part in timber, and also had a minor wooden tower.

As Hampstead grew in popularity and size as an out-of-town health resort, the small existing church grew less and less adequate and derelict, being finally declared unusa...
»more


OCTOBER
3
2015

 

South Hampstead High School
South Hampstead High School is an independent day school. The school was founded and is still supported by the Girls’ Public Day School Trust (GPDST). It is a through school for girls from 4 – 18 and operates over three sites. The Senior School is currently housed on a temporary campus whilst a brand new state-of-the-art building is under construction. The Junior School operates from two old houses nearby and the Sixth Form has its own building, Oakwood House. Entry into the school is selective at ages 4+,7+,11+ and 16+ and there is always a high demand for places.

The school was founded in 1876 as the ninth school established by the Girls’ Public Day School Trust (the largest group of independent schools in the UK). It started life as the St John’s Wood School with only 27 pupils. From 1946 until the late 1970s it was a girls’ direct grant grammar school, whereby around half the intake were paid for by the local council. It opened in its present form on 30 September 1980.
»read full article


OCTOBER
2
2015

 

Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel
The Rosslyn Hill Unitarian Chapel is a place of worship and a member of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, the umbrella organisation for British Unitarians. The chapel, which stands on Rosslyn Hill, was at first a simple wooden structure. Said to have been built in 1692 by Isaac Honeywood who lived in the adjoining mansion, the Red Lion Hill meeting house was first replaced in 1736 and then, having become unsafe, rebuilt in brick on roughly the same site in 1828.

The current building (using the old brick chapel as its hall) was built from 1862 to 1885 in the Neo Gothic style. Two of the building’s stained-glass windows are by Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris and another is by Henry Holiday. It holds four John Flaxman reliefs and plaques to previous congregants, such as Helen Allingham (the first woman artist admitted to the Royal Academy). Its stone arches and pointed ceiling vault give it an excellent acoustic, making it a popular recording venue.
»read full article


OCTOBER
1
2015

 

Queen’s Crescent Market
Queen’s Crescent Market is one of London’s oldest street markets, and is still held every Thursday and Saturday. The market sells food, discounted clothing and a wide variety of household products. It has capacity for more than 90 stalls.

Many traders run stalls that have been passed from generation to generation. This is in contrast to the nearby and considerably more famous Camden markets, which primarily attract tourists and those from other parts of London (Inverness Street Market was a traditional produce market in Camden Town for a century, but in 2013 the last produce stall closed, leaving only tourist stalls like the other Camden markets). Aesthetically Queen’s Crescent market is a mixture, with pretty plain white houses sitting side by side with large council estates, some of which sit in beautifully landscaped grounds.
»read full article


PREVIOUSLY ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP...

Print-friendly version of this page


w:en:Creative Commons
attribution share alike
Unless otherwise given an attribution, images and text on this website are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic licence.
If given an attribution or citation, any reuse of material must credit the original source under their terms.
If there is no attribution or copyright, you are free:
  • to share - to copy, distribute and transmit the work
  • to remix - to adapt the work
Under the following conditions:
  • attribution - You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).
  • share alike - If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.

1900 and 1950 mapping is reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence.