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Featured · Queen’s Park ·
October
7
2022

The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.

In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.

Latest on The Underground Map...
Northumberland Avenue, WC2N
Northumberland Avenue runs from Trafalgar Square in the west to the Thames Embankment in the east. In 1608–09, Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton built a house on the eastern side of the former Chapel and Hospital of St. Mary Rounceval, at Charing Cross, including gardens running to the River Thames and adjoining Scotland Yard to the west. The estate became the property of Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland when he married Howard’s great-great niece, Lady Elizabeth, in 1642, whereupon it was known as Northumberland House.

In June 1874, the whole of Northumberland House was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works and demolished to form Northumberland Avenue, which would accommodate hotels. The road was part built on the parallel Northumberland Street.

Contemporary planning permissions forbade hotels to be taller than the width of the road they were on; consequently Northumberland Avenue was built with a wide carriageway. Part of the parallel Northumberland Street was demolished in order to make way for the avenue’s eastern...

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JULY
26
2022

 

Houghton Street (1906)
A greengrocer’s on the corner of Houghton Street and Clare Market (behind The Strand) in 1906 just before demolition The thoroughfare known as Clare Market, leading eastwards into Lincoln’s Inn Fields, was so called in honour of the Earl of Clare, who lived "in a princely mansion" adjacent. His name is inscribed as a parishioner of St. Clement Danes in the ratebooks of 1617. In Howell’s "Londinopolis" of 1657 we read: "Then is there, towards Drury Lane, a new market, called Clare Market; then is there a street and palace of the same name, built by the Earl of Clare, who lived there in a princely mansion, having a house, a street, and a market both for flesh and fish, all bearing his name." It is also mentioned by Strype:- "Clare Market, very considerable and well served with provisions, both flesh and fish; for, besides the butchers in the shambles, it is much resorted unto by the country butchers and higglers. The market-days are Wednesdays and Saturdays."

"This market," says Nightingale, in the tenth volume of the Beauties of England and Wales, "stands on what was...
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JULY
25
2022

 

The Hare
The Hare is situated at 505 Cambridge Heath Road The Hare has existed on this site since the 1770s. The current building dates from around 1860.
»read full article


JUNE
21
2022

 

High Barnet - Totteridge walk
This walk takes in the top of the Northern Line High Barnet is a London Underground station and, in the past, a railway station, located in Chipping Barnet. It is the terminus of the High Barnet branch of the Northern line and is the start of a walk which takes us on to Totteridge and Whetstone station.

High Barnet station was an idea of the Edgware, Highgate and London Railway and was opened on 1 April 1872 by the Great Northern Railway which had taken over by then. It was situated on one of the original sites of the Barnet Fair and was the terminus of the branch line that ran from Finsbury Park via Highgate.

The section north of East Finchley was incorporated into the London Underground network because of the Northern Heights project begun in the late 1930s. High Barnet station was served by Northern line trains from 14 April 1940 onwards.

The station retains much of its original Victorian architectural character, with some platform buildings dating from the pre-London Transport era.»more


MAY
19
2022

 

Lochnagar Street, E14
Lochnagar Street runs east from the Blackwall Tunnel northern approach road Before the coming of the Blackwall Tunnel, there was a road called Brunswick Road from which Lochnagar Street ran, towards Islay Wharf.

This area of Poplar contains a large number of streets with Scottish names because they were built on an estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823. The McIntosh Housing Estate was laid out during the 1870s and the road layout was formalised. During the 1880s an oil works was established on the river frontage.

The developer and builder of the housing was John Abbott, who is commemorated in Abbott Road - the longest street in this part of Poplar. The houses in Lochnagar Street had three rooms and a scullery down­stairs.

The initial letters of other street names were chosen alphabetically from Aberfeldy Street to Zetland Street. Other roads in this patch include Ailsa Street, Blair Street, Culloden Street, Dee Street, Ettrick Street, Findhorn Street, Leven Road, Oban Street, Spey Street, Te...
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LATEST LONDON-WIDE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROJECT

Comment
Richard Lake   
Added: 28 Sep 2022 09:37 GMT   

Trade Union Official
John William Lake snr moved with his family to 22 De Laune Street in 1936. He was the London Branch Secretary for the Street Masons, Paviours and Road Makers Union. He had previously lived in Orange St now Copperfield St Southwark but had been forced to move because the landlord didn’t like him working from home and said it broke his lease.
John William snr died in 1940. His son John William Lake jnr also became a stone mason and at the end of World War two he was responsible for the engraving of the dates of WW2 onto the Cenotaph in Whitehall.

Reply
Lived here
Julie   
Added: 22 Sep 2022 18:30 GMT   

Well Walk, NW3 (1817 - 1818)
The home of Benthy, the Postman, with whom poet John Keats and his brother Tom lodged from early 1817 to Dec., 1818. They occupied the first floor up. Here Tom died Dec. 1, 1818. It was next door to the Welles Tavern then called ’The Green Man’."

From collected papers and photos re: No. 1 Well Walk at the library of Harvard University.

Source: No. 1, Well Walk, Hampstead. | HOLLIS for

Reply
Comment
   
Added: 4 Sep 2022 15:42 GMT   

Superman 2
I worked here in 1977. The scene in the prison laundry in Superman 2 was filmed here.

Reply

TUM   
Added: 27 Aug 2022 10:22 GMT   

The Underground Map
Michael Faraday successfully demonstrated the first electrical transformer at the Royal Institute, London.

Reply

Admin   
Added: 26 Aug 2022 15:19 GMT   

Bus makes a leap
A number 78 double-decker bus driven by Albert Gunter was forced to jump an accidentally opening Tower Bridge.

He was awarded a £10 bonus.

Reply

Admin   
Added: 26 Aug 2022 12:44 GMT   

The world’s first underground train
The very first underground train left Paddington on the new Metropolitan Railway bound for Farringdon Street.

Reply

Admin   
Added: 26 Aug 2022 12:41 GMT   

Baker Street
Baker Street station opened on the Metropolitan Railway - the world’s first underground line.

Reply

Admin   
Added: 26 Aug 2022 12:17 GMT   

TV comes to Olympia
Over 7000 people queued to see the first high definition television pictures on sets at the Olympia Radio Show. The pictures were transmitted by the BBC from Alexandra Palace, introduced by Leslie Mitchell, their first announcer.

Reply


Click here to explore another London street
We now have 507 completed street histories and 46993 partial histories
Find streets or residential blocks within the M25 by clicking STREETS

APRIL
30
2018

 

Kenilworth Drive, WD6
Kenilworth Drive was one of the roads built for the proposed Laing’s Estate. The John Laing Company had big plans for pre-war Borehamwood. By 1937 they has laid out some of the key roads of their estate which would have been a high-prestige area of housing - modelled on Hollywood. The Laings roads were the main arterial ones - Manor Way, Cranes Way, Ripon Way, Bullhead Road and Balmoral Drive.

After the Second World War, with housing needs to the fore, Laings were bought out and a very different estate was built instead.
»read full article


APRIL
29
2018

 

Starrock Lane, CR5
Starrock Lane lies near Chipstead, on the edge of the metropolis. The road seems to have been named after a cetain "Rocious de Storocke" who lived here in 1265 – this name might mean someone who lived by a high rock.

Starrock Farm had land on both sides of Starrock Lane.
»read full article


APRIL
28
2018

 

City Temple
The City Temple is a Nonconformist church on Holborn Viaduct. It is the only English Free Church still worshipping in its own building every Sunday in the City of London. The current Minister is Rev Dr Rodney Woods. The church is part of the Thames North Synod of the United Reformed Church and is a member of the Evangelical Alliance.

The City Temple is most famous as the preaching place of the 20th century liberal theologian Leslie Weatherhead. Other notable preachers have included R. J. Campbell, Joseph Fort Newton, Thomas Goodwin and Joseph Parker.

The first church building on the present site was built in 1874. The congregation was founded much earlier; the traditional date is 1640 but some evidence suggests it was founded as early as the 1560s by the Puritans. Destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1958.

Read the City Temple (London) entry on the Wikipedia...
»read full article


APRIL
26
2018

 

Vallance Road, E1
Vallance Road is a significant road running north-south from Bethnal Green Road to Whitechapel Road. Its southernmost section was called Baker’s Row as far as the junction with Hanbury Street. It then continued northwards as Charles Street, New Charles Street, Wellington Street and White Street. Charles Street was later incorporated into Baker’s Row when the latter was widened in the late 19th Century.

Eventually, all the streets were renumbered and renamed Vallance Road on 21 January 1896. It was named after W. Vallance, clerk to the Metropolitan Board of Guardians.

It was the site of the Whitechapel Union Infirmary (on its eastern side) which eventually became St. Peter’s Hospital in 1924 and was demolished in the 1950s.

Nearby Hughes Mansions (built 1929) were partially demolished by a V2 rocket on 27th March 1945. It was the last explosive device of the war to fall on London and resulted in 134 deaths.

East End gangsters Ronald and Reginald Kray lived with their family at 178 Vallance Road from 1939 (the house is now demolished).
»read full article


APRIL
25
2018

 

St Anns Road, N15
St Anns Road was once a country lane called Hangar Lane. Hangar Lane was rechristened St Ann’s Road in 1872.

Charlotte Riddell (September 30, 1832 - September 24, 1906) was a one of the most popular and influential writers of the Victorian period lived in St John’s Lodge on the site of St Ann’s Hosptal - opposite Blackboy Lane. She used to describe herself as living on "Green Lanes, near Harringay House".

She wrote in 1874:

Sixteen years ago... As for Hanger Lane, no one had yet dreamed of the evil days to come, when mushroom villas should be built upon the ground that not long before was regarded as an irreclaimable morass—when at first a tavern and then a church (the two invariable pioneers of that which, for some unknown reason, we call civilisation) appeared on the scene, and brought London following at their heels . . . when, in a word, Hanger Lane should be improved off the face of the earth and in the interest of speculative builders . . called, as it is at present, St. Ann’s ...
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APRIL
24
2018

 

Hardinge Road, NW10
Hardinge Road was named after Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India. It was quite late in its development - moving from fields to houses only in the 1930s.
»read full article


APRIL
23
2018

 

Upper Addison Gardens, W14
Upper Addison Gardens runs between Holland Road and Holland Villas Road. Nos. 2-13 and 30-43 Upper Addison Gardens were built by James Hall over several years from 1857. These are terraced houses with three storeys above a semi-basements and a 25 foot frontage. They were built using yellow brick with stucco dressings, and are crowned with an elaborate modillioned cornice.

James Hall built about 120 houses in the estate in the 1850s. He also built extensively in the Chepstow Villas and Pembridge Place area.
»read full article


APRIL
22
2018

 

St Paul’s Churchyard, EC4M
By the beginning of the sixteenth century, St. Paul’s Churchyard was the chief centre of the book trade, not only for London, but for the whole country. Parts of the cathedral and its surrounding areas had been used as markets since the fourteenth century. By 1597, St. Paul’s was used not only as a church - it had become the bookshop of London.

Booksellers on Paternoster Row became a source of competition in the latter half of the century, eventually winning the prominent position in London bookselling, but St. Paul’s maintained its supremacy well into the seventeenth century.

The bookshops were populated largely by foreign booksellers in the sixteenth century. England did not have its own printing press until the 1490s, and in 1484 Richard III had passed an Act of exemption to foreign printers, encouraging them to bring their trade to London. The central settling point for these booksellers was St. Paul’s Churchyard.

The Rev. Dr. Croby, in his ’Life of George IV.,’ tells us that Queen Charlotte was in the habit of paying visits, in company with some lady-in-waiting, to Holywell S...
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APRIL
21
2018

 

Hillside
Hillside was the childhood home of Sir Richard Burton. Hillside was previously known as both ’Clockhouse’ and ’Barham House’.

William Putland built the adjacent Coach House (still standing as two semi detached houses) in 1789. Barham House was built sometime between that date and 1820 for it was, in the 1820s, the home of a Samuel Baker. He was the grandfather of Richard Burton, a renowned Victorian explorer. Richard Burton was born in Torquay (Devon) in 1821 but christened at St Nicholas Church, Elstree. He spent a lot of his boyhood at the house.

The newsletter of the Elstree and Borehamwood Museum noted in 2014:

"Richard Burton became an Oxford scholar, explorer, archaeologist, diplomat, writer, translator, linguist (he could speak 25 languages in later years), and expert swordsman. He was always looking for new experiences to escape from what he termed ’The slavery of civilisation’. He had the looks to match his adventurous spirit, being 6 foot tall and...
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APRIL
20
2018

 

Arsenal
Arsenal tube station is a Piccadilly Line station. Meanwhile, Arsenal is maybe a football club too... Arsenal tube station is a Piccadilly Line station. Originally known as Gillespie Road, it was renamed in 1932 after Arsenal Football Club, who at the time played at the nearby Arsenal Stadium. It is the only Tube station named directly after a football club.

Arsenal tube station was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) as Gillespie Road on 15 December 1906. The GNP&BR later renamed the Piccadilly line after the consolidation & nationalisation of the Tube network as London Underground. The original station building and ticket hall were red terracotta-clad buildings designed by Leslie Green, similar to neighbouring Holloway Road and Caledonian Road stations.

At the time of Gillespie Road’s construction, it served a residential area and a local divinity college. In 1913, Arsenal Football Club moved to Highbury on the site of the college’s playing fields, and the club’s presence there eventually led to a campaign for a ...
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APRIL
19
2018

 

Chelsea
Chelsea is an affluent area, bounded to the south by the River Thames. Its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, which is now in a pipe above Sloane Square tube station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square, along with parts of Belgravia. To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and South Kensington, but it is safe to say that the area north of King’s Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea.

The word Chelsea originates from the Old English term for chalk and landing place on the river. The first record of the Manor of Chelsea precedes the Domesday Book and records the fact that Thurstan, governor of the King’s Palace during the reign of Edward the Confessor (1042–1066), gave the land to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. Abbot Gervace subsequently assigned the manor to his mother, and it passed into private ownership. The modern-day Chelsea hosted the Synod of Chelsea in 787 AD....
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APRIL
18
2018

 

The Rifle
The Rifle was a public house on Fulham Palace Road. It was established at 7 Compton Terrace by 1874.

The pub was managed for about forty years by the Mancini brothers- - Toni and Alfred - alongside their father. With their interest in boxing, they renamed the pub the "Golden Gloves". It became the "Suffolk Punch" in 1996 and later "The Old Suffolk Punch".
»read full article


APRIL
17
2018

 

Coleherne House
Coleherne House once stood on the corner of Brompton Lane (later Brompton Road) and Walnut Tree Lane (now Redcliffe Gardens). Coleherne House dates from the 1600s and might have originally been known as Cold Barn House. There were many owners over the years including the poet Richard Blackmore lived there in 1700s. By the time of the turn of the nineteenth century, it was in the hands of William Bolton who also may have rebuilt the house.

Certainly the following owner, Philip Gilbert built another property in the grounds of Coleherne House in 1815, called it 'Hereford House' and went off to live in it until he left in 1838.

James Gunter bought both Coleherne House and Hereford House in 1864, leasing Coleherne to Edmund Tattersall, an auctioneer, from 1865. Tattersall fell ill at Newmarket races in 1898.

After his death, both Coleherne House and Hereford House were demolished.

In their place, Coleherne Court - a large apartment block, was built. This was the final home of Lady Diana Spencer before she married Prince Charles in 1981.
»read full article


APRIL
15
2018

 

Egerton Crescent, SW3
Egerton Crescent was described in 2013 as "the most expensive street in Britain". The street runs roughly north to south in a curve, with both ends forming t-junctions on Egerton Gardens, which in turn runs roughly north to south between Egerton Terrace and Brompton Road.

The houses were designed by George Basevi and built by James Bonnin in the 1840s, when it was called Brompton Crescent, but was renamed Egerton Crescent in 1896 in honour of Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater.

In 2013, property here cost more than 74 times the price of the average home in the UK.

By December 2015, it had been demoted to be the second most expensive street in England, with an average property price of £7,550,000, according to research from Lloyds Bank, based on Land Registry data..
»read full article


APRIL
14
2018

 

Sands End
Sands End was a close knit working class community. Once a rural backwater called Sandy End, it became the industrial heart of Fulham with its gas works, power station and petrol depot providing work for generations of local families.

A property boom beginning in the 1970s coupled with the advent of oil fueled processing of North Sea oil led to an inexorable process of gentrification with offices and studio businesses and flats on the market for more than £2.4 million.

On the bank of the Thames is Hurlingham Retail Park, which includes Currys and PC World. There is also a business enterprise centre in the Sulivan district. Across the other side of Townmead Road there is a large Sainsbury’s, and Imperial Wharf, a brownfield development of the former Imperial Gasworks which is growing to include a mixture of affordable housing, both private and public, shops, a park and a new railway station.
»read full article


APRIL
13
2018

 

Nicoll Farm
Nicoll Farm is one of the earliest locations recorded in the Borehamwood area. Nicoll (Nicholl) Farm was built on land owned by Lord Aldenham. The farmhouse was built c.1500 with a crosswing added a century later. There was an early and mid eighteenth century extension, and 19th and 20th century additions.

The farm was interesting geologically as it occupied land suitable for growing crops whereas the surrounding area was mostly clay. Later in its life, it had an equestrian speciality.

By 1908, the farm was tenanted out to Joseph Still. Later the tenancy went to Douglas Dalton who was known for both his pigsty and his sausages.

Despite being green belt, a housing development was built on the site in the 2010s.
»read full article


APRIL
12
2018

 

The Fascination of Chelsea
The Fascination of Chelsea was a book published in 1902. It was written by Geraldine E. Mitton. It was part of the "Fascination of London" series edited by Walter Besant and published posthumously in 1902 following his death the previous year.

The original publishers were Adam & Charles Black (London).

The Spectator published the following contemporary review: "The Fascination of London : Chelsea. By G. E. Mitten. Edited by Sir W. Besant. (A. and C. Black. ls. 6d. net.)—This volitme, one of four on the same scale and with substantially the same author; ship, Mr. Mitten collaborating with Sir W. Besant, or having his work supervised by him, is an earnest of the great work on the Metropolis which Sir W. Besant contemplated. Each parish was to be perambulated and made the subject of a small book, Chelsea being chosen as a specimen, with . Hampstead, Westminster, and the Strand district. This is a very pleasant little book, the work of.a competent observer, who knows what to look for and how to deal with what be ...
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APRIL
11
2018

 

Abchurch Yard, EC4N
First mentioned in 1732, Abchurch Yard was built on the St Mary Abchurch churchyard. Although not one of the City’s most secluded byways, it is ideally situated at the side of a tiny lane – an antique area that has changed little in layout since the 12th century.

The bulk of Abchurch Yard, a paved square lying to the south of St Mary Abchurch, was once the graveyard to this outstanding church, and now, during the summer months, is prettily decked with tubs of colourful flowers. From the seats arranged along the church wall you can take time out to watch the scurrying lunchtime herds. Leading from the ‘square’, along the west side of Wren’s red bricked church, is the old churchyard path, now formed as a narrow lane but retaining, through its name, a link with centuries past.

The present church was built in 1681 after its predecessor was destroyed on the 3rd September 1666, a victim of the Great Fire. Although it is one of the smallest of Wren’s City churches, the almost square interior is made to appear spacious by the great do...
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APRIL
10
2018

 

St Mary Mounthaw
St Mary Mounthaw or Mounthaut was a parish church in Old Fish Street Hill. The church was originally built as a chapel for the house of the Mounthaunt family, from Norfolk, from whom the church took its name. In around 1234 the house and the patronage of the church were bought by Ralph de Maydenstone, Bishop of Hereford. He left it to his successors as bishop, who used the house as their London residence. One of them, John Skypp, personal chaplain to (and champion of) Anne Boleyn, was buried in the church.

The church was enlarged and partly rebuilt in 1609, partly at the cost of Robert Bennet, Bishop of Hereford. The next year new glass was installed, at the cost of Thomas Tyler and Richard Tichburne.

Along with the majority of the 97 parish churches in the City of London, St Mary Mounthaw was destroyed by the Great Fire in September 1666. In 1670 a Rebuilding Act was passed and a committee set up under Sir Christopher Wren to decide which would be rebuilt. St Mary Mounthaw was not one of those chosen; instead the parish was uni...
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APRIL
8
2018

 

Marlow Workshops, E2
Marlow Workshops is a Victorian block containing a mixture of residential and commercial use. They consist of a terrace of Grade II listed industrial workshops and were built in 1899

The residential part of the block is accessed via a private forecourt.
»read full article


APRIL
7
2018

 

York Way, WD6
York Way is the remnant of a service road which used to serve the MGM studios. with the demise of the MGM Borehamwood studios in the early 1970s, the studio was vacant for a while before Christian Salveson - a Scottish logistics company - moved there. Salveson demolished the backlot and built storage facilities. However they retained the distinctive MGM tower and added their logo.

When Salveson in turn moved out, the chance was taken to develop an industrial estate. This meant the demolition of the last MGM buildings.
»read full article


APRIL
6
2018

 

Haydon Street, EC3N
Haydon Street heads east from the Minories. The earliest mention of Haydon Street seems to be on Greenwood’s map, 1827. Earlier forms of the streetname were "Heydons Yard" (1677). "Heydon Yard" (Rocque, 1746). "Haydon Yard" (Horwood, 1799).

The name is derived from the family of Heydon, who were well known in the district. Captain John Heydon occupied the Minories officially as Master of the Ordnance 1627-1642, and took a great interest in the precinct.
»read full article


APRIL
5
2018

 

Haydon Street, E1
The eastern end of Haydon Street was called Mansell Passage. It was known by this name as a railway cut off the greater part of Haydon Street to the west. When the railway disappeared the two parts of Haydon Street were combined.
»read full article


APRIL
4
2018

 

America Square, EC3N
America Square is a street and small square, built in about 1760 and dedicated to the American colonies. America Square was developed as part of plans by George Dance the Younger in 1768-1774.

Nathan Meyer Rothschild lived at No. 14 in the 19th century. The square was bombed in 1941, and Rothschild’s house was demolished.

Today, America Square is occupied by offices, restaurants and a gym.
»read full article


APRIL
2
2018

 

Petticoat Lane Market
Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market in the East End. It consists of two adjacent street markets. Wentworth Street Market is open six days a week and Middlesex Street Market is open on Sunday only.

It is one of a number of traditional markets located to the east of the City of London. A few hundred yards to the north is Old Spitalfields Market, which has been refurbished, and across Commercial Street, to the east, lies Brick Lane Market. A half mile further east is the Columbia Road Flower Market. Petticoat Lane Market was not formally recognised until an Act of Parliament in 1936, but its long history as an informal market makes it possibly one of the oldest surviving markets in Britain.

The name Petticoat Lane came from not only the sale of petticoats but from the fable that "they would steal your petticoat at one end of the market and sell it back to you at the other."

In Tudor times, Middlesex Street was known as Hogs Lane, a pleasant lane lined by hedgerows and elms. It is thought city ba...
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APRIL
1
2018

 

Holy Trinity, Minories
Holy Trinity, Minories was a Church of England parish church outside the eastern boundaries of the City of London, but within the Liberties of the Tower of London. The parish covered an area previously occupied by the precincts of the Abbey of the Minoresses of St. Clare without Aldgate, founded by Edmund Crouchback, in 1293, for a group of Spanish nuns of the Order of St. Clare who arrived with his wife. The nuns were also known as the Minoresses – which came to be adapted as the name for the district, Minories. The nunnery was surrendered to the Crown in 1539, during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the buildings, excluding the chapel, were used as an armory for the Tower of London, and later, as a workhouse. Some of the abbey buildings survived until their destruction by fire in 1797.

The liberty was incorporated in the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney in 1899, and today is within the City of London.

The nuns’ chapel became a parish church. Considerable changes were made to the building: all the ancient monuments were removed, a gallery, a new pulpit and pews were installed, and a steeple was built...
»more


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