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MAP YEAR:175018001810182018301860190019502024Show map without markers
TIP: You can navigate to different places within the M25 by choosing a location from the list you can see at the top
 
APRIL
20
2024
The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.

In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.


Licence: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence


Click here to explore another London street
We now have 666 completed street histories and 46834 partial histories
Find streets or residential blocks within the M25 by clicking STREETS


NOVEMBER
30
2022

 

Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks. Canary Wharf originally housed cargo warehouses that catered to the docks and derived its name from trade with the Canary Islands. In the past, the docks were the busiest globally until containerisation led to their decline.

In 1981, the London Docklands Development Corporation initiated a project to rejuvenate the derelict London docks, covering an area of eight square miles. Initially, the focus was on redeveloping light industrial schemes, and the primary occupant of Canary Wharf was Limehouse Studios, a television production company.

In 1984, while searching for a location for a client’s food processing plant, Michael von Clem, the head of the investment bank Credit Suisse First Boston, visited the Docklands. He discovered vacant land and, considering the possibility of relocating City of London offices, reached out to his counterpart at Morgan Stanley. They agreed that a substantial development with critical mass would be necessary and acknowle...
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NOVEMBER
29
2022

 

Throgmorton Street, EC3V
The name of Throgmorton Street is a corruption of the name of Nicholas Throckmorton, Elizabeth I’s ambassador to France and Scotland. First mentioned in 1598, Throgmorton Street was once called Broad Street.

Throgmorton Street, located in the City of London, has a historical connection to Thomas Cromwell, who was King Henry VIII’s chief minister. It is believed that Cromwell once resided in Throgmorton Street during his time of prominence.

Adjacent to Throgmorton Street is Throgmorton Avenue, a private road that extends from Throgmorton Street to London Wall. Throgmorton Avenue is owned by the Drapers’ Livery Company and the Carpenters’ Livery Company, and it is gated at both ends.

The southern side of Throgmorton Street was formerly occupied by the London Stock Exchange.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
28
2022

 

Stockwell
Stockwell is a district situated a couple of miles south-east of Charing Cross. Stockwell probably got the second half of its name from a local well; the other half is from stoc, which was Old English for a tree trunk or post. During the period from the thirteenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Stockwell existed as a rural manor situated on the outskirts of London. It encompassed flourishing market gardens and John Tradescant’s botanical garden, which is now commemorated by Tradescant Road, established in 1880, as well as a memorial outside St Stephen’s church. As the nineteenth century unfolded, Stockwell evolved into an elegant middle-class suburb. Among its residents was the renowned artist Arthur Rackham, born in South Lambeth Road in 1867, who later relocated with his family to Albert Square at the age of 15.

Stockwell station, inaugurated on 4 November 1890 by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), holds the distinction of being the southernmost station on the City & South London Railway (C&SLR), ...
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NOVEMBER
27
2022

 

Aylesbury Estate, SE17
The Aylesbury Estate is a vast housing development in Walworth. Constructed between 1963 and 1977, the Aylesbury Estate encompassed 2704 dwellings distributed among various blocks and structures, accommodating at it speak approximately 7500 residents. The estate is undergoing an extensive regeneration initiative.

Due to significant structural issues and the prevalent negative perception of housing estates across the United Kingdom, the Aylesbury Estate gained notoriety as one of the country’s most infamous estates. While often referred to as the largest public housing estate in Europe, verifying this claim with precise accuracy is challenging.

In 1997, Tony Blair, then Prime Minister, chose this location to deliver his inaugural speech. By doing so, he aimed to showcase the government’s commitment to caring for the most disadvantaged members of society. The Aylesbury Estate frequently serves as a representative example of urban decay.

In 2023, the number of residents in one of the blocks ear...
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NOVEMBER
26
2022

 

Purfleet
Purfleet-on-Thames is located in the Thurrock unitary authority in Essex. Situated in the easternmost part of the M25 motorway, it is just outside the Greater London boundary. Previously, Purfleet was part of the traditional Church of England parish of West Thurrock. The area has a mix of industrial activity to the south and is encompassed within the Thames Gateway redevelopment area. Purfleet is recognized as one of the seven conservation areas in Thurrock.

The origins of the name "Purfleet" can be traced back to 1285 when it was referred to as Purteflyete. The name signifies "Purta’s stream or tidal inlet," indicating its geographical features and history as a waterfront settlement.

During the 18th century, Purfleet Royal Gunpowder Magazine was established as a crucial storage site for gunpowder, accompanied by a garrison for protection. The presence of stored gunpowder created a constant risk of explosions, particularly from lightning strikes. To mitigate this danger, Benjamin Franklin was consulted for advice on designing lightning conductors. The Royal Society supported his design for pointed conductors, which effect...
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NOVEMBER
25
2022

 

Hammersmith Flyover, W6
The Hammersmith flyover is an elevated roadway which carries the A4 arterial road over the central Hammersmith gyratory system. The flyover links the Cromwell Road extension (Talgarth Road) with the start of the Great West Road.

Completed in 1961, it was built by J&J Dean, a London-based civil engineering contractor.

Most of the St Paul’s Church churchyard - the oldest parish church of Hammersmith - had to be cleared, including an old wall and many grave markers.

The Hammersmith flyover is one of the first examples of an elevated road built using reinforced concrete.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
24
2022

 

Crooms Hill, SE10
Crooms Hill runs along the western edge of Blackheath. Crooms Hill in Greenwich is thought to be the oldest named road in London. It was first recorded in the 10th century and is likely to come from the Saxon word ’crom’ or ’crum’ meaning crooked, due to its shape.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
23
2022

 

Kingsleigh Walk, BR2
Kingsleigh Walk was built on the site of an old house. Percy Lovely was the final owner of a large house called King’s Leigh - he had connections to Leigh-on-Sea in Essex. In the mid-1950s, he was elected as an Alderman for the City of London, but his appointment was not ratified by the Corporation for undisclosed reasons.

Following his death, a memorial service was held for Lovely at St Paul’s Cathedral. Soon after, the house was demolished and replaced by Kingsleigh Walk.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
22
2022

 

Temeraire Street, SE16
Temeraire Street is named for Turner’s painting ’The Fighting Temeraire’ Keeping the nautical link, Temeraire Street was called Nelson Street until 1892.

It seems that Turner’s painting of the ship’s final journey takes some artistic liberties and did not accurately depict the actual events. According to historical records, the ship was taken for scrap at Beatson’s ship-breaking yard in Rotherhithe by two tugboats, not one, on 6 September 1836.

Contemporary observers mentioned that there was no sunset during the ship’s final journey. However, in Turner’s painting, the sun appears to set in the east, which does not match reality.

Furthermore, the ship’s appearance in the painting differs from its actual state at the time. By the time the ship was auctioned off to ship-breaker John Beatson, many of its features, such as the tall masts and rigging, had been removed. Turner’s painting depicts the ship with the rigging and masts still intact.

These artistic cho...
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NOVEMBER
21
2022

 

Cabot Square, E14
Cabot Square is one of the central squares of the Canary Wharf Development. Cabot Square, Cabot Place and Cabot Hall derive their names from the Italian explorer, John Cabot.

Cabot Square includes a fountain and several works of art. In the northwest corner of the square, there is a memorial stone dedicated to Michael von Clemm, an influential international banker during the 1960s, 70s and 80s. Von Clemm was a visionary who played a pivotal role in conceptualising the transformation of docklands into a financial centre. He served as the Chairman of CSFB, which later became Credit Suisse’s Investment Banking division.

Previously, Cabot Hall occupied the eastern side of the square. This grand hall, inaugurated in 1991, hosted banquets and performances. However, in 2006, the Canary Wharf Group announced its decision to close Cabot Hall for conversion into additional retail spaces and restaurants.

Cabot Place, on the east side of the square is a large shopping centre.

The original Canary Wharf, fo...
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NOVEMBER
20
2022

 

Limehouse
Limehouse is a National Rail station, also connected to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) network. Limehouse station provides regional services connecting to and from Fenchurch Street, as well as light metro services offered by the DLR, linking to Tower Gateway or Bank. Limehouse station is situated approximately 2.8 km away from Fenchurch Street on the main line, with the next station being West Ham. On the DLR, it is positioned between Shadwell and Westferry.

The station was originally opened by the Commercial Railway, later known as the London and Blackwall Railway, in 1840 under the name Stepney. During that time, the Commercial Railway operated another station called Limehouse, located one stop to the east of Stepney. In 1923, Stepney was renamed Stepney East, and in 1926, the other Limehouse station was closed down.

In 1987, Stepney East changed its name to Limehouse shortly before the introduction of the DLR.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
19
2022

 

Fieldgate Mansions, E1
Fieldgate Mansions is a significant complex of tenement dwellings that was constructed between 1903 and 1907. The history of this area traces back to the 1790s when Thomas Barnes established a narrow alley, measuring 10 feet wide, between New Road and York Street (later known as Myrdle Street) on the London Hospital estate. Over time, the alley became lined with small one- and two-storey houses, initially named Essex Street and later renamed Romford Street in 1882. However, the condition of this area did not reflect well on the hospital, prompting discussions about its closure.

In 1897, Rowland Plumbe, the hospital’s surveyor, devised a plan to widen Romford Street and redevelop both sides with terraced houses, including top-floor workshops. However, the proposal faced challenges, with concerns raised about limited space at the rear of the houses. The London County Council (LCC) denied permission for the road widening, leading Plumbe to revise the plan. Seeking LCC approval, Plumbe met with Thomas Blashill, the LCC’s Superintending Architect, and Arthur Crow, the Di...
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NOVEMBER
18
2022

 

Downshire Hill, NW3
Downshire Hill was originally developed at the beginning of the 19th century. Given the hilly nature of Hampstead, Downshire Hill can be considered a gentle slope in comparison to the other nearby hills. It forms the southern end of a long road known as Rosslyn Hill in the south and Hampstead High Street in the north.

Downshire Hill was believed to have been named after Wills Hill, the first Marquess of Downshire (1718-1793). The western portion of the road was established by 1813, while the eastern continuation towards East Hill Road was likely completed by 1819. One of the notable characteristics of Downshire Hill is the presence of large houses that grace its sides. These houses, constructed during a time when their owners possessed significant wealth, exude grandeur and elegance. However, not all the houses are of immense size, as the charm of the area is also defined by the quaint "old world" gardens that complement the houses.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
17
2022

 

Spotted Dog
The Spotted Dog, located at 212 Upton Lane, Forest Gate, London, is a public house with a Grade II listing. Its origins can be traced back to the late 15th or early 16th century. According to historical accounts, there is speculation that the establishment may have served as a hunting lodge during the reign of King Henry VIII.

The Spotted Dog closed in June 2004 and fell into a state of severe disrepair. In 2009, the London Fire Brigade issued a notice deeming it a dangerous structure. Recognising its historical and community significance, a campaign group called Save the Spotted Dog emerged in 2014, garnering support from local MPs and the Newham Council. Their aim was to either restore the pub as a family-friendly establishment or repurpose it as a community facility.

In 2020, the council granted approval for plans to renovate the pub and construct a neighbouring 68-room hotel.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
16
2022

 

Hillfield Park, N10
Hillfield Park has one of the best panoramas over London, in the capital. In 1896, the local land was sold to a builder, James Edmondson of Highbury. He immediately laid out Queens Avenue (across The Limes estate) and began building the Broadway shopping parades.

Edmondson developed six estates in Muswell Hill – Hillfield, The Limes, The Elms, Fortis House, Wellfield and North Lodge. Prince’s Avenue and Queens Avenue were the initial residential streets to be constructed, paving the way for the development of Hillfield Park towards the end of the 1890s.

Continuing south of Muswell Road, Edmondson undertook the development of Wellfield Avenue, Elms Avenue and Dukes Avenue. To ensure convenient access to the station, a pathway was created between Nos. 26 and 28 Dukes Avenue. The North Lodge Estate saw the establishment of Woodberry Crescent between 1906 and 1910.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
15
2022

 

The Champion
The Champion in Fitzrovia is a fine Grade II listed pub with Victorian-style fittings. The Champion was built around 1860 in gault brick with stucco dressings and with a slate roof. Historic England have commented on its "lively classical detailing".

The Champion’s most notable features are the splendid stained glass windows of the ground floor bar, featuring British historical characters, including David Livingstone, Florence Nightingale and cricketer W.G. Grace. The windows look old but were installed in 1989 and are the work of Ann Sotheran.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
14
2022

 

Excalibur Estate
The Excalibur Estate in Catford is one of the better-known prefabricated housing estates. The Excalibur Estate comprised 189 two-bedroom prefabs constructed on vacant land located to the north of an unfinished pre-war estate. The Estate was constructed between 1945-46 by German and Italian prisoners of war.

The single-story prefabricated bungalows were designed by the Ministry of Works; each with two bedrooms, a private garden and an indoor lavatory.

Notably, all eight roads within the estate were named after the Knights of the Round Table. Some of the bungalows have received listed status, ensuring their preservation and continued presence in the area.

Six of the best-preserved houses have been Grade-II listed by English Heritage.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
13
2022

 

Epping
Epping, situated in the Epping Forest district of Essex, is a market town and civil parish. Epping is located three miles northeast of Loughton, five miles south of Harlow and 11 miles northwest of Brentwood. It enjoys a picturesque setting surrounded by Epping Forest and working farmland.

The town is characterised by its collection of ancient buildings, many of which hold Grade I and II listings. Preserving its historical traditions, Epping still hosts a weekly market dating back to 1253, which takes place every Monday.

Although the renowned Epping Butter, sought after in the 18th and 19th centuries, is no longer produced, Church’s Butchers, a local institution operating since 1888, continues to craft the equally famous Epping sausages at their long-standing premises.

In 1856, the Eastern Counties Railway introduced a double-track railway line connecting Stratford and Loughton, with a subsequent extension to Ongar in 1865. Responding to its popularity, the track between Loughton and Epping was doubled in the 1890s. During i...
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NOVEMBER
12
2022

 

Pembridge Gardens, W2
Pembridge Gardens dates from the 1850s. The south-eastern part of the Hall Estate was developed by Francis and William Radford.

Houses here were designed for the "well-to-do" with servant areas such as the kitchens in the basements.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
11
2022

 

Watford
Watford is the largest town in Hertfordshire, situated 17 miles northwest of central London. Watford, a town located in the northern home counties, boasts several notable features such as Cassiobury Park, which was previously the manor estate of the Earls of Essex, and Watford Football Club, a professional team.

The town’s origin dates back to an Anglo-Saxon settlement situated between a ford of the River Colne and the intersection of two ancient tracks. St Albans Abbey claimed rights to the manor of Cashio, which included Watford. The construction of the parish church of St Mary the Virgin in 1230, along with stalls for a weekly market, took place on the same site as an earlier Saxon church.

Watford’s growth was modest until the 17th century, when the 17th-century houses of Cassiobury and The Grove were developed, primarily assisted by travellers en route to Berkhamsted Castle and the royal palace at Kings Langley. The Grand Junction Canal’s introduction in 1798, followed by the London and Birmingham Railway in 1837, enabled t...
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NOVEMBER
10
2022

 

East Putney
East Putney is a London Underground station on the Wimbledon branch of the District line. On 3 June 1889, East Putney station was inaugurated as part of an extension to Wimbledon from Putney Bridge station by the District Railway (DR), which is now known as the District line. The London and South Western Railway (LSWR) constructed the extension and commenced operating their own trains over the line on 1 July 1889. This was facilitated through connecting tracks from their Waterloo to Reading line at Point Pleasant Junction, located just west of Wandsworth station (now Wandsworth Town), to East Putney.

The electrification of the District line from Putney Bridge to Wimbledon occurred on 27 August 1905, which completed the conversion from steam to electric operation.

Southern Railway, the LSWR’s successor, discontinued regular passenger services between Waterloo and Wimbledon through East Putney on 4 May 1941. Nevertheless, the line remained under the ownership of British Rail until 1 April 1994 when it was sold to London Underground for £1...
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NOVEMBER
9
2022

 

Miller’s End
One of a series of roads containing prefabs on the Highams Park Estate Miller’s End was situated at the southern ends of Coopersale Avenue and Fishers Avenue.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
8
2022

 

Canning Town to North Greenwich walk
The walk where I sneak across the Thames but not by Tube. .
»read full article


NOVEMBER
8
2022

 

Coldharbour Lane, SE5
Coldharbour Lane has two sections - an SE5 area and another part in SE9. The photo shows the junction of Coldharbour Lane and Brixton Road, looking towards Elphick’s, the butcher’s shop on the left and Brixton Theatre on the right. The theatre was bombed in World War II and subsequently demolished.

The corner site was filled around 1910 by the Electric Cinema.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
7
2022

 

Brandon Estate
Brandon Estate is a social housing estate in London Borough of Southwark. Situated to the south of Kennington Park, the Brandon Estate was built in 1958 by the London County Council, to designs by Edward Hollamby and Roger Westman.

The estate’s initial development included six 18-storey towers - at the time, the tallest in London - a new square and other lower buildings, and the rehabilitation of some Victorian terraces.

The estate is named after Thomas Brandon, a gardener, who obtained permission by Act of Parliament to let land within the Walworth manor on building leases for 99 years in 1774.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
6
2022

 

Ashley Drive, WD6
Ashley Drive was one of the original Laing estate roads. Borehamwood might have looked very different if two 1930s plans had not been halted by the War.

If it weren’t for the interruption caused by the Second World War, Borehamwood may have had a vastly different appearance due to two development plans that were halted. The John Laing company had acquired hundreds of acres in the area with the aim of creating a "garden town," following the extension of the Underground system to Elstree Hill from Edgware.

By 1939, some new roads had already been built, including Ashley Drive and Balmoral Drive, which ran north-south and connected with Ripon Way, which in turn linked up with another north-south road, Manor Way/Cranes Way, located slightly to the east.

The outbreak of war brought John Laing’s work to a standstill. After the war ended, London was faced with a housing crisis, prompting the London County Council to propose a new plan centred around the roads that had already been built by Laing.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
5
2022

 

Whitefoot Lane, BR1
Whitefoot Lane straddles the SE6 and BR1 postcodes. Whitefoot Lane served as the original road in the area prior to the development of the Downham Estate in 1926. The estate was named after Lord Downham, formerly known as William Haynes Fisher, who served as the chairman of the London County Council (LCC) that approved the construction of three large housing estates in 1914. The land for the Downham Estate was acquired in 1920 and encompassed the Holloway Farm to the west and Shroffolds Farm to the north.

Before the estate was built, there was minimal development south of Whitefoot Lane. Many locals enjoyed walking over the "Seven Fields" during the weekends. The estate’s name was derived from Lord Downham’s title, while many of the road names were inspired by Tennyson’s "Idylls of the King" or places in Devon.

Builders Holland, Hannen & Cubbits completed approximately 6,000 houses by the summer of 1930. Another section consisting of just over 1,000 houses was constructed in Whitefoot Lan...
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NOVEMBER
4
2022

 

Rainham
Rainham is on the edge of Rainham Marshes which border the Thames. Archaeological findings in the area surrounding the village reveal evidence of continuous settlement from the Bronze Age through to early Saxon times, including remains from the Neolithic, Iron Age, Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon periods. It is believed that the name "Rainham" may originate from the Saxon term "roeginga-ham," meaning "settlement of the prevailing people." River crossings to Kent predate the Roman occupation, and over time, numerous long and short ferries have been introduced. One such ferry, the "short ferry" from Erith in Kent to Rainham Ferry, was established in the 12th century.

During medieval times, Rainham was one of the fourteen parishes of the Chafford Hundred, occupying its south westerly corner adjoining the Liberty of Havering. As a small port for coastal shipping, Rainham Creek was utilized as a means of ferrying out livestock (there was extensive grazing on the marshes) as early as 1200. Local trade and employment continued to be linked to...
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NOVEMBER
3
2022

 

Orleston Road, N7
Orleston Road dates from the late 1830s. During the 1820s, the construction of buildings began to spread towards the west from Holloway Road. By 1829, Palmer Place, Palmer Street, and Madras Place had been built between Holloway Road and Paradise Row. On the north side of the schools, which had been renamed Liverpool Road, stood Paradise House, while the beginning of Bride Street was on the south side. North of Park Street South, houses had been constructed in York Place (later St Clement Street) and Barnsbury Grove. Further along Holloway Road, Cornwall Place and George’s Place (later George’s Road) had been extended westward as Eden Grove and the Grove, with terraced and detached houses to connect to Caledonian Road.

St James’s church was built on Victoria Road (later Chillingworth Road) in 1837-1838, and the district schools were built on George’s Road in 1838.

By 1841, the area between Palmer Place and Victoria Road had been partially developed, and further infilling ...
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NOVEMBER
2
2022

 

Clapton Square, E5
Clapton Square was laid out in 1816 in the fields of the manor of Hackney as homes for senior merchants, officers and financial brokers. Joseph Priestley, a scientist and fellow of the Royal Society, once lived in Clapton Square.

In the late 18th century, gold plate designer Louisa Perina Courtauld, a Huguenot widow, lived in a cottage behind Priestley’s house. Her son, Samuel Courtauld, went on to establish the Courtauld dynasty of silk manufacturers, with a descendant founding the Courtauld Institute.

In 1905, Lenin visited his friend Theodore Rothstein, who was living in the square.

While the houses along two sides of the square were replaced in the late 19th century, the north and west sides still feature Georgian houses. The east side of the square was destroyed during the Second World War and subsequently rebuilt.

Today, Clapton Square boasts central gardens, which contain a beautifully restored drinking fountain donated to Hackney by Howard Morley in 1894.
»read full article


NOVEMBER
1
2022

 

Clyde Road, N15
Clyde Road was laid out from 1851 onwards. It is unsure why Clyde Road got its name. It was called this already in 1851 but three years later, Lord Clyde was a significant figure in the Crimean War. The local 1850s-built pub subsequently built was called ’The Lord Clyde’ after the hero of Balaclava, cementing the name in the landscape.

Many London roads of the 1850s also received Crimean War names.

Clyde Road is bisected by Clyde Circus. Before post-Second World War development, Clyde Road both extended farther east and west than it now does.
»read full article


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