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Featured · Queen’s Park ·
MAY
18
2022

The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.

In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top left and then clicking Reset Location.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.

You can also view historical maps of London - click on the "pile of paper" control on the top right of a page's map to change to a particular decade.

Latest on The Underground Map...
East India Dock Road, E14
East India Dock Road is an important artery connecting the City of London to Essex, and partly serves as the high street of Poplar It takes it name from the former East India Docks and its route was constructed between 1806 and 1812 as a branch of the Commercial Road. The road begins in the west at Burdett Road and continues to the River Lea bridge in the east in Canning Town.

It laid within the parish of Limehouse with the western end in the former Gravel Pit Field.

The westernmost end, west of Stainsby Road and Birchfield Street was built up between 1847 and 1853 (north side) and 1850 and 1860 (south side).

»more

FEBRUARY
14
2022

 

Whitechapel High Street, E1
Whitechapel High Street runs approximately west-east from Aldgate High Street to Whitechapel Road and is designated as part of the A11 Forming part of the main road from Aldgate to Essex and known originally as Algatestreet, it was paved as early as the reign of Henry VIII, although John Stow described its shabbiness as "no small blemish on so famous a city".

Owing to its importance as a major thoroughfare out of London, its sides were built up early and included many coaching inns and taverns. Although some remain (in name only), many of these hostelries were closed following the arrival of the railways in the 19th century.

Whitechapel High Street becomes Whitechapel Road after the intersection with Osborn Street and Whitechurch Lane. It was also the location of the Whitechapel Haymarket, first given its charter in 1708 and abolished in 1929.
»read full article


FEBRUARY
13
2022

 

Worgan Street, SE11
Worgan Street is the new name for the former Catherine Street in the Vauxhall Gardens Estate area Spring Gardens was established here in the reign of King Charles II. Here could be found live entertainers, food and drink. It was a venue for amorous liaisons, as regular visitor Samuel Pepys noted.

In 1729, the Vauxhall Spring-Gardens was sublet to the entrepreneurial Jonathan Tyers who saw an opportunity to provide a new style of entertainment for Londoners, charging an admission fee of one shilling to discourage the pickpockets and ’ladies of the night’. This became the first and best-known of London’s pleasure gardens. Over the next 130 years Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens played host to concerts, operas, firework displays, circus acts, balloon rides and more.

In 1859, the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens were closed and the area redeveloped into housing. Catherine Street was built here and the street was renamed Worgan Street in the late 1930s.

In the 1970s, the local houses - some badly war-damaged - were demolis...
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FEBRUARY
12
2022

 

Wilsham Street, W11
Wilsham Street was formerly known as St Katherine’s Road Charles Booth’s poverty map placed the Kensington Potteries among the "criminal and irreclaimable areas", largely on account of the overcrowded condition of its unsuitable and derelict houses.

Five short streets in the district became known as the "Special Area.": Bangor Street, Crescent Street and three roads that have been renamed. St. Clement’s, now called Sirdar Road, St. Katherine’s Road, now Wilsham Street, and William, now Kenley Street.

In 1899 an enquiry was undertaken at the instance of the London County Council, and it was found that nearly half the babies born in this area died before they were a year old.

In 1904 there was a public-house to every twenty-five dwellings in these streets, and about twenty-three common lodging-houses provided accommodation for over seven hundred persons, at a nightly charge of fourpence or sixpence.

Greater however than the evil of these licensed lodging-houses, w...
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FEBRUARY
11
2022

 

Golborne Mews, W10
Golborne Mews lies off of the Portobello Road, W10 The Mews is part of the ‘Oxford Gardens’ Conservation Area. Designated in 1975 to include the St Quintin Estate, Oxford Gardens, Bassett Road and Cambridge Gardens, the Conservation Area contains very few listed buildings and can be split into three districts containing developments spanning from 1897 to after 1905.

Originally the stable house accommodation for the main houses on the surrounding streets, the primary purpose of the Mews properties is now residential.
»read full article





LATEST LONDON-WIDE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROJECT

Comment
Watts   
Added: 17 May 2022 20:29 GMT   

Baeethoven St School, also an Annex for Paddington College of FE.
In the early 70’s I took a two year science course at Paddington CFE. The science classes were held on weekday evenings at Beethoven Street school, overseen by chemistry teacher, Mr Tattershall.

Reply

   
Added: 25 Apr 2022 22:11 GMT   

Southover, N12
Everyone knows Central Woodside is the place to be. Ever since kdog moved from finchtown, Woodside has been thriving.

Reply
Born here
Bernard Miller   
Added: 12 Apr 2022 17:36 GMT   

My mother and her sister were born at 9 Windsor Terrace
My mother, Millie Haring (later Miller) and her sister Yetta Haring (later Freedman) were born here in 1922 and 1923. With their parents and older brother and sister, they lived in two rooms until they moved to Stoke Newington in 1929. She always said there were six rooms, six families, a shared sink on the first floor landing and a toilet in the backyard.

Reply

Brian Lynch   
Added: 10 Apr 2022 13:38 GMT   

Staples Mattress Factory
An architect’s design of the Staples Mattress Factory
An image found on the website of Dalzell’s Beds, in Armagh Northern Ireland.

Reply
Lived here
   
Added: 19 Feb 2022 16:21 GMT   

Harmondsworth (1939 - 1965)
I lived in a house (Lostwithiel) on the Bath Road opposite the junction with Tythe Barn Lane, now a hotel site. Initially, aircraft used one of the diagonal runways directly in line with our house. I attended Sipson Primary School opposite the Three Magpies and celebrated my 21st birthday at The Peggy Bedford in 1959.

Reply

Emma Seif   
Added: 25 Jan 2022 19:06 GMT   

Birth of the Bluestocking Society
In about 1750, Elizabeth Montagu began hosting literary breakfasts in her home at 23 (now 31) Hill Street. These are considered the first meetings of the Bluestocking society.

Reply
Comment
   
Added: 14 Jan 2022 03:06 GMT   

Goldbourne Gardens W 10
I lived in Goldbourne Gardens in the 50,s very happy big bomb site

Reply

Chris Nash   
Added: 10 Jan 2022 22:54 GMT   

Shortlands Close, DA17
Shortlands Close and the flats along it were constructed in the mid-1990s. Prior to this, the area was occupied by semi-detached houses with large gardens, which dated from the post-war period and were built on the site of Railway Farm. The farm and its buildings spanned the length of Abbey Road, on the south side of the North Kent Line railway tracks.

Reply

JANUARY
30
2018

 

Cissbury Ring South, N12
Cissbury Ring South is one of the roads of the Woodside Park Garden Suburb. The founder of the Woodside Park Garden Suburb, Fred Ingram, built more and more roads and houses, retaining the character of the earlier developments. Walmington Fold, Lullington Garth and Chanctonbury Way grew outwards from the original nucleus and Poynings Way, Steynings Way, Saddlescombe Way, Cissbury Ring, Pyecombe Corner, Folkington Corner, Wolstonbury, Offham Slope and Rodmell Slope also materialised.
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JANUARY
28
2018

 

Heathcote Street, WC1N
Heathcote Street is in the north-east corner of the Foundling Hospital estate, leading from St George’s Gardens to Gray’s Inn Road. It was named after Michael Heathcote, Governor of the Foundling Hospital from 1810

A gate once stood here to bar access to Mecklenburgh Square, in an attempt by the estate to make this a more desirable residential area.

Its remaining houses were mainly destroyed in the Second World War
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JANUARY
27
2018

 

Shepherd’s Bush Place, W12
Shepherd’s Bush Place was formerly known as Providence Place. Geograph mentioned Shepherd’s Bush Place as a "remarkable local survivor, hard by Shepherd’s Bush Green and now also Westfield Shopping Centre and the new Central Line station..."

Most of the street still has the original Victorian terraces lining it.
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JANUARY
26
2018

 

The Prince Albert
Originally called the Albert Tavern, the Prince Albert public house is a three storey building dating from 1866-68. It was extended in 1871 and is attributed to the architect Joseph Tanner. The building is symmetrical about the corner with four bays to Albert Bridge Road and four to Parkgate Road of the same architectural composition of four round headed windows to first and second floors with rendered arches linked to capitals. The ground floor is glazed red faience whilst upper floors are yellow stock brick.

It is now the oldest building on Albert Bridge Road.
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JANUARY
25
2018

 

Rose Croft Gardens, NW2
Rose Croft Gardens is a cul-de-sac off of Dollis Hill Lane. In the 1920s and 30s new housing estates sprang up in Neasden and Oxgate, which brought thousands of people into the area. In the early 20s the North Circular Road was cut through the middle of the parish, and towards the end of that decade the Nicol Estate was built on its north side, and the Brentwater Estate on its other side. Braintcroft School was opened in 1928, and Wykeham School in 1930.

Neasden Golf Course began to be eaten away in 1926, and in 1929 the contents of the clubhouse were auctioned off. Within a year the golf course was covered by the houses of the “Dollis Park” estate to its eastern boundary at Vincent Gardens. The last country landmark in Neasden Lane, Jackman’s Forge, disappeared to make room for the new shopping parade. A new church hall for St Catherine’s Church was opened in 1928, and the old parish room which had been built in 1907 was demolished.

At the turn of the decade Neasden Recreation Ground was formed, t...
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JANUARY
24
2018

 

York Place, WC2N
York Place marks the location of a house on this site. York Place was built on the site in the 14th century for the bishops of Norwich â
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JANUARY
21
2018

 

Dollis Hill Farm
Dollis Hill Farm was situated to the north of Dollis Hill Lane. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Finch family, one of the two important local families, bought up several pieces of land to make the Dollis Hill Estate. This included two farms, with the main farmhouse north of Dollis Hill Lane and the smaller one opposite it on the south. The farms around Willesden were well known for their hay, grown for the horses of London, and there were dairy farms producing milk.

Originally the estate lands were more extensive and a large 17th century house, rebuilt in 1800, was used as Dollis Hill Farm.

In 1825 the family had enough money to replace the smaller farmhouse with a new house, named Dollis Hill House. Things did not go so well for them after 1850, when Henry Finch lost his lucrative post at the Royal Mint, so in 1861 they moved back into Dollis Hill Farm, and rented Dollis Hill House to Sir Dudley Coutts Marjoribanks, who later became Lord Tweedmouth.

The farm halted as a working farm in...
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JANUARY
20
2018

 

Neasden
Neasden was first recorded as ’Neasdun’ in AD 939, derived from the Old English neos = ’nose’ and dun = ’hill’. Neasden could be seen for afar as a ’nose-shaped hill’ in its rural past as it had been a countryside hamlet on the western end of the Dollis Hill ridge. The land was owned by St. Paul’s Cathedral. In medieval times, the village consisted only of several small buildings around the green near the site of the present Neasden roundabout.

In the 15th–17th century the Roberts family were the major landowners in the area. Thomas Roberts erected Neasden House (on the site of the modern Clifford Court) in the reign of Henry VIII. In 1651 Sir William Roberts bought confiscated church lands. After the Restoration the estates were returned to the ownership of the Church but were leased out to the Roberts family. Sir William improved Neasden House and by 1664 it was one of the largest houses in the Willesden parish.

During the 18th century the Nicoll family replaced the Roberts as the dominant family in Neasden. In the 19th century these farmers a...
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JANUARY
18
2018

 

Gipsy Hill, SE19
Gipsy Hill is the name of the main road that runs from Gipsy Road, near its junction with South Croxted Road, up to Westow Hill in Upper Norwood. Gipsy Hill takes its name from the presence of Gipsies in what was a relatively remote rural area until Gipsy Hill railway station was opened in 1856. On 11 August 1668, Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary that his wife had visited "the gypsies at Lambeth"; they may well have been located in this area.
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JANUARY
17
2018

 

Homestead Park, NW2
Homestead Park consists of twenty one dwelling-houses located on the north side of Dollis Hill Lane. By the time of the First World War the suburban expansion of Willesden along Neasden Lane and Dudden Hill Lane had reached the outskirts of Neasden, which was then a rural village.

Neasden Green incorporated a number of large houses and estates whose owners were resisting the suburban tide. Gladstone Park, on the south side of Dollis Hill Lane and Neasden Golf course to the north were acting as barriers to further development.

The break up of the Neasden estates and the catalyst of development, came in the form of the North Circular Road from Neasden Lane to Edgware Road began which began in January 1921 and was completed two years later. The North Circular Road opened up the Brentwater estate on the north side of Dollis Hill Ridge to housing development in the late 1920s. This period of encroaching development posed its greatest threat to Neasden Golf Club, which began with the selling of a slice of land for housing development in 1926.

E...
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JANUARY
16
2018

 

Queen Street, EC4R
Queen Street is a street in the City of London which runs between Upper Thames Street and Cheapside. It is split between two postcode areas - EC4N and EC4R.

The thoroughfares of Queen Street and King Street (a northward continuation of Queen Street beyond Cheapside) were newly laid out, cutting across more ancient routes in the City, following the Great Fire of London in 1666; they were the only notable new streets following the fire's destruction of much of the City.

At the lower (southern) end of Queen Street is Southwark Bridge. The London Chamber of Commerce & Industry is located at No. 33. At the upper (northern) end the street crosses Cheapside and becomes King Street, which leads to Gresham Street and the Guildhall. This creates a direct route from the River Thames at Southwark Bridge up to the Guildhall. Queen Street meets the newer Queen Victoria Street as well as Cannon Street. Minor roads off the street include Skinners Lane (the home of the Worshipful Company of Skinners) and Cloak Lane.

Two short sections of the street are ped...
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JANUARY
15
2018

 

Adelphi Terrace, WC2N
Adelphi Terrace is named after John and Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development in the 1760s. The Adam brothers created an elegant residential district raised on high arches, with the lower streets under-ground at Thames level.

When the [[81319|Adelphi]] scheme was first proposed, Mr. Coutts, of the Strand, being anxious to preserve the views over the Kent and Surrey hills, which the back windows of his banking house had, purchased a share of the Durham Gardens property, and arranged with the Adam brothers that the new streets should be laid out as to preserve the vista.

Robert Street was accordingly planned as to form a frame for the wealthy banker’s landscape. The piece of land between William Street and John Street was at that time occupied by his strong rooms, connected underground with the office, and built up only to the level of the Strand. When it became necessary to enlarge his premises he procured a special Act of Parliament for throwing an arch over William Street.
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JANUARY
14
2018

 

The Adelphi
The Adelphi is a small district surrounding the streets of Adelphi Terrace, Robert Street and John Adam Street. The district is named after the Adelphi Buildings, a block of 24 unified neoclassical terrace houses occupying the land between The Strand and the River Thames in the parish of St Martin in the Fields, which also included a headquarters building for the "Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce" (now generally known as the Royal Society of Arts). They were built between 1768-72, by the Adam brothers (John, Robert, James and William Adam), to whom the buildings@@@ Greek-derived name refers. The ruins of Durham House on the site were demolished for their construction. The nearby Adelphi Theatre is named after the Adelphi Buildings. Robert Adam was influenced by his extensive visit to Diocletian@@@s Palace in Dalmatia, and applied some of this influence to the design of the neoclassical Adelphi Buildings.

Adelphi has no formally defined boundaries, though they are generally agreed to be: Strand to the north, Lancaster Place to the east, Victoria Emb...
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JANUARY
13
2018

 

Melrose Avenue, WD6
Melrose Avenue was the first built of Borehamwood’s ’poet’ roads. The ’poets’ roads of Borehamwood were named by David Scott-Blackhall, Chief Housing Officer of the Elstree Rural District Council and himself a published poet.

He wanted to name a road after Sir Walter Scott by calling one Scott Avenue. However, as David’s surname was ’Scott-Blackhall’, he was afraid that people might think he had immodestly named the road after himself.

Therefore it became Melrose Avenue, after Sir Walter Scott’s connections with Melrose Abbey ,in the Scottish Borders.
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JANUARY
12
2018

 

Lullington Garth, N12
Lullington Garth is an oddly named road in Woodside Park. In the late 1920s, Mr FCJ ("Fred") Ingram conceived the creation of a new housing estate served by its own cluster of shops and near to Woodside Park station. He began buying land on the western side of the Dollis Brook and as far north as the confluence of Folly Brook with Dollis Brook. He promoted the proposed development as a 100-acre "garden suburb" with a maximum of eight houses to the acre.

He named the new roads after rural areas of Sussex where frequented in his youth. The three-bedroom semi-detached houses were to be of consistent but not uniform design. The roads were to be laid out with ornamental trees and grass verges and the built-up area was to be surrounded by parkland and open fields, with footpath access to the beautiful Totteridge Valley.

Lullington Garth was ultimately named after the village of Lullington in Sussex whereas a garth is the cloister garden of a medieval monastery.
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JANUARY
11
2018

 

Wilton Crescent, SW1X
Wilton Crescent is notable for its affluent and politically important list of residents, present and historic. Wilton Crescent was created by Thomas Cundy II, the Grosvenor family estate surveyor, and was drawn up with the original 1821 Wyatt plan for Belgravia. It was named at the time of Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton, second son of Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster on whose estate the road was built in 1825.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was home to many prominent British politicians, ambassadors and civil servants. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900–1979) lived at 2 Wilton Crescent for many years, marked today by an attributive blue plaque. Akin to nearby developments, Wilton Crescent is characterised by grand terraces with lavish white houses which are built in a crescent shape, many of them with stuccoed balconies, particularly on the southern part of the crescent. The Portland stone-clad, five-storey houses toward the north are high and were refaced between 1908 and 1912 via architects Balfour and Turner. Most of the houses had o...
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JANUARY
9
2018

 

Island Gardens
Island Gardens is an area of the Isle of Dogs opposite Greenwich. The 1.12-hectare waterside park at Island Gardnes is notable for its spectacular cross-river view of the classical buildings of the former Greenwich Hospital, the Cutty Sark and the National Maritime Museum, with Greenwich Park forming a backdrop. The northern entrance of the Greenwich foot tunnel is also within the park. It is almost certain that the view from this location is the one that the Canaletto painting ’Greenwich Hospital from the North Bank of the Thames’ is taken from, though whether Canaletto himself actually visited the site is in doubt. The park was formally opened on 3 August 1895 by local politician Will Crooks.

The 19th century name for the area was North Greenwich. It was named for the now defunct North Greenwich railway station (1872), that served a former passenger ferry to Greenwich and stood near the later Island Gardens (1897) and Greenwich foot tunnel (1902).

The park gave its name to Island Gardens DLR station. This opened i...
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JANUARY
8
2018

 

Mudchute Park
Mudchute Park and Farm is a large urban park and farm just south of Canary Wharf on the Isle of Dogs. It is a Local Nature Reserve and a Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation. The name of the site is a testament to the engineering overspill when Millwall Dock was being constructed in the 1860s. Spoil from the excavation of the Dock, and silt from its channels and waterways were dumped on nearby land, using a conveyor system.

The park now covers 13 hectares, and the local authority describes the farm as the largest urban farm in Europe.

The Millwall Dock Company owned a huge swathe of land across the Isle of Dogs as it intended to extend the docks to meet the Thames in the east one day, when there was enough business to justify it. Until then, the company kept the land undeveloped, mostly leasing it out for pasture. This was also the case of the later Mudchute (or ’Mud Shoot’ as it was originally spelled in official documents).

The name "Mudchute" derives from it being the former dumping ground for mud dredged from the ...
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JANUARY
7
2018

 

Greenwich Peninsula
The Greenwich Peninsula is bounded on three sides by a loop of the Thames, between the Isle of Dogs to the west and Silvertown to the east.
Formerly known as Greenwich Marshes and as Bugsby’s Marshes, it became known as East Greenwich as it developed in the 19th century, but more recently has been called North Greenwich due to the location of the North Greenwich tube station. This should not be confused with North Greenwich on the Isle of Dogs, at the north side of a former ferry from Greenwich.

The peninsula was drained by Dutch engineers in the 16th century, allowing it to be used as pasture land. In the 17th century, Blackwall Point (the northern tip of the peninsula, opposite Blackwall) gained notoriety as a location where pirates’ corpses were hung in cages as a deterrent to other would-be pirates. In the 1690s the Board of Ordnance established a gunpowder magazine on the west side of the peninsula, which was in operation by 1695 serving as the government’s primary magazine (where newly-milled powder was stored prior to being distributed, on board specially-equipped hoys, to wherever it ...
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JANUARY
6
2018

 

Blackwall Tunnel
The Blackwall Tunnel is a pair of road tunnels which pass underneath the River Thames. The tunnel links the London Borough of Tower Hamlets with the Royal Borough of Greenwich, and forms part of the A102 road.

A tunnel in the Blackwall area was originally proposed in the 1880s. According to Robert Webster, then MP for St Pancras East, a tunnel would "be very useful to the East End of London, a district representing in trade and commerce a population greater than the combined populations of Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham." By this time, all road bridges in London east of the ferry at Chiswick were toll-free, but these were of little use to the two fifths of London’s population that lived to the east of London Bridge. The Thames Tunnel (Blackwall) Act was created in August 1887, which provided the legal framework necessary to construct the tunnel. The initial proposal, made by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, called for three parallel tunnels, two for vehicular traffic and one for foot, with an expected completion date of works within seven years. It was orig...
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JANUARY
5
2018

 

Shroffold Road, BR1
Shroffold Road takes its name from the former Shroffolds Farm. Shroffolds Farm itself was situated in Whitefoot Lane and was owned by the Earl of Northbrook.

The future Downham housing estate was built over the farmland between 1920 and 1923.
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JANUARY
4
2018

 

St Michael Queenhithe
St. Michael Queenhithe was a church in the City of London located in what is now Upper Thames Street. First recorded in the 12th century, the church was destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666. Rebuilt by the office of Sir Christopher Wren, it was demolished in 1876.





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JANUARY
3
2018

 

The back gardens of Hazelbank Road (1915)
The view from the rear of 133 Hazelbank Road in Lewisham across Shroffold’s Farm, 1915 While London seems to have surburbanised quickly between the world wars, it actually grew in sudden spurts between housing slumps. There were many slowdowns in building in the nineteenth century and, after the Wall Street crash, a slowdown in the twentieth century too.

Sometimes building speculation would part build an area, leaving gaps for a decade or two where the old farms would carry on.

This was true for areas now considered part of inner London such as Lewisham. Hazelbank Road stretched southwest-northeast but Shroffold’s Farm was still a going concern at the back of the new housing.
»read full article


JANUARY
2
2018

 

Whitehouse Avenue, WD6
Whitehouse Avenue was originally to be called Cornwall Avenue. Whitehouse Farm was situated on Furzehill Road, dated to the 18th century and originally spread over 200 acres. It was owned by the Church of England.

After the railway became established in the area, the population grew and as new industries were introduced more houses and roads were required, Drayton Road being the first in Boreham Wood. Developers began buying plots of land, mainly off of Shenley Road and Whitehouse Farm began to shrink. Road building off the north side of Shenley Road reached by 1918 as far to the east as Clarendon Road.

Between the wars, the founding of the film studios and work starting on the Laings estate off Elstree Way, resulted in large areas of farmland being lost. Postwar, the London County Council needed land to house London’s ‘population overspill’ and made a compulsory purchase of Laing’s land off Elstree Way, as well as farmland to the east of Theobald Street.

Whitehouse Avenue was started in the la...
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JANUARY
1
2018

 

Ladbroke Grove, W11
Ladbroke Grove is the main street in London W11. The story of the first, southern part of Ladbroke Grove dates back to the 1820s.

Much of the area was owned by the Ladbroke family who also had holdings in Kensington. In 1821, a nephew of the family, James Weller inherited the estate, and according to the conditions of the will of his uncle was forced to change his name to James Weller Ladbroke. He put in train the project to build up the area with Victorian town houses for the gentry.

Large parts of this area became the scene of a layout quite unlike anything previously, or indeed subsequently, to be found in London. Building development was spread over some fifty years, between 1821 and the mid 1870s, but the most intense activity took place between 1840 and 1868. Half-a-dozen architects and a rather larger number of major speculators were all involved in the evolution of the layout.

Under the terms of his uncle's will James Weller Ladbroke could only grant leases of up to twenty-one ye...
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