Garrick Yard

Courtyard in/near Leicester Square, existing between 1779 and now

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Courtyard · Leicester Square · WC2N · Contributed by The Underground Map
August
20
2017


Garrick Yard, together with the more familiar Garrick Street to the northeast of here, both took their names from the Garrick Club which commemorates the famous 18th century actor, David Garrick.

As a young man of 18 years of age, David Garrick left his native town of Lichfield on the 2 March 1737 and set out for London sharing a horse with his tutor, Samuel Johnson. Whilst Johnson had high hopes of winning fame in the world of literature, Garrick came to complete his education in law, a profession he was very soon diverted from in preference for the stage.

The two arrived in the capital with only four pence between them and were forced into pleading with a bookseller friend of the Garrick family to lend them five pounds. After spending a short period at a college in Rochester, David Garrick’s sentiment for the theatre compelled him to terminate his studies, and with his elder brother, Peter, went into the business of selling wine as a stop-gap while awaiting the opportunity to present himself as an actor.

It was in March 1741 when Garrick got his big break and until his death on 20 January 1779 he enjoyed the fame and popularity attributed to the greatest of actors in his time. Boswell said of him: ‘the undisputed monarch of the British stage; is probably in fact the greatest actor who has ever lived.’ He further went on in praise of his achievements: ‘A clever playwright, occasional poet, and adapter; manager of Drury Lane Theatre. Has accumulated a fortune; owns a splendid house with a fine library.’ In applause of his artistry Boswell enthused in these words: ‘A small man whose behaviour on the stage is so natural that one forgets that he is acting’.

Samuel Johnson, who had remained a friend of Garrick throughout his life, commented on the death of the actor: ‘Garrick’s death is a striking event; not that we should be surprised with the death of any man who has lived sixty-two years; but because there was a vivacity in our late celebrated friend, which drove away the thoughts of death from any association with him. I am sure you
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VIEW THE LEICESTER SQUARE AREA IN THE 1750s
The 1750 Rocque map is bounded by Sudbury (NW), Snaresbrook (NE), Eltham (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1750 map does not display.

VIEW THE LEICESTER SQUARE AREA IN THE 1800s
The 1800 mapping is bounded by Stanmore (NW), Woodford (NE), Bromley (SE) and Hampton Court (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1800 map does not display.

VIEW THE LEICESTER SQUARE AREA IN THE 1830s
The 1830 mapping is bounded by West Hampstead (NW), Hackney (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Chelsea (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1830 map does not display.

VIEW THE LEICESTER SQUARE AREA IN THE 1860s
The 1860 mapping is bounded by Brent Cross (NW), Stratford (NE), Greenwich (SE) and Hammermith (SW).
Outside these bounds, the 1860 map does not display.

VIEW THE LEICESTER SQUARE AREA IN THE 1900s
The 1900 mapping covers all of the London area.

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Leicester Square

Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London.

Leicester Square is named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, who purchased four acres in St. Martin's Field in 1630; by 1635, he had built himself a large house, Leicester House, at the northern end. The area in front of the house was then enclosed, depriving inhabitants of St Martin in the Fields parish of their right to use the previously common land. The parishioners appealed to King Charles I, and he appointed three members of the Privy Council to arbitrate. Lord Leicester was ordered to keep part of his land (thereafter known as Leicester Field and later as Leicester Square) open for the parishioners.

The area was developed in the 1670s. It was initially fashionable and Leicester House was once residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales but by the late 18th century, the Square was no longer a smart address and began to serve as a venue for popular entertainments. Leicester House became home of a museum of natural curiosities called the Holophusikon in the 1780s and was demolished about 1791–1792.

In 1848, Leicester Square was the subject of the land-law case of Tulk v. Moxhay. The plot's previous owner had agreed upon a covenant not to erect buildings. However, the law would not allow purchasers who were not 'privy' to the initial contract to be bound by subsequent promises. The judge, Lord Cottenham, decided that future owners could be bound by promises to abstain from activity. Otherwise, a buyer could sell land to himself to undermine an initial promise. Arguments continued about the fate of the garden, with Charles Augustus Tulk's heirs erecting a wooden hoarding around the property in 1873. Finally, in 1874 the flamboyant Albert Grant (1830–1899) purchased the outstanding freeholds and donated the garden to the Metropolitan Board of Works, laying out a garden at his own expense. The title passed to the succeeding public bodies and is now in the ownership of the City of Westminster.

By the 19th century, Leicester Square was known as an entertainment venue, with many amusements peculiar to the era, including Wyld's Great Globe, which was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851 and housed a giant scale map of the Earth. Several hotels grew up around the square, making it popular with visitors to London. The Alhambra, a large theatre built in 1854, dominated the site, to be joined in 1884 by the Empire Theatre of Varieties. The square remains the heart of the West End entertainment district today.

Leicester Square tube station, on the Northern and Piccadilly lines, is located on Charing Cross Road, a short distance to the east of Leicester Square itself.

On early Tube plans, the station was listed as Cranbourn Street, but the present name was used when the station was first opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. Offices above the red terracotta station building on the east side of Charing Cross Road - designed by Leslie Green - was in its early years also occupied by the publishers of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack and an image of cricket stumps appears above a doorway. On all four platforms, film sprockets are painted down the entire length and on the top and bottom of the display area (blue on the Piccadilly line platforms, and black on the Northern line platforms), due to the four premiere cinemas in Leicester Square. The station is featured briefly during the introductory video sequence of the sixth Harry Potter film.

During the 1979 'Winter of Discontent', refuse collectors went on strike. Leicester Square was used as an overflow dump, earning it the nickname of Fester Square.


LOCATIONS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Charing Cross:   Charing Cross denotes the junction of the Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square in central London. It gives its name to several local landmarks, including Charing Cross railway station, one of the main London rail termini.
Covent Garden:   From fruit and veg to Froo Tan Vetch
Embankment:   Embankment underground station has been known by various names during its long history - including "Embankment".
Hungerford Stairs:   The Hungerford Stairs were the entrance point to Hungerford Market from the River Thames. They are now the site of Charing Cross railway Station.
Leicester Square:   Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London.
Northumberland House:   Northumberland House was a large Jacobean townhouse in London, which was the London residence of the Percy family, who were the Dukes of Northumberland.
Royal Opera House:   The foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1660, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies (The Duke's Company) in London.
St Giles:   St Giles is a district of London, at the southern tip of the London Borough of Camden.
The Adelphi:   The Adelphi is a small district surrounding the streets of Adelphi Terrace, Robert Street and John Adam Street.
Tottenham Court Road:   Tottenham Court Road runs from St Giles' Circus (the junction of Oxford Street and Charing Cross Road) north to Euston Road.
Wyld’s Great Globe:   Wyld’s Great Globe was an attraction situated in Leicester Square between 1851 and 1862.


PHOTOS OF THE AREA
Buses outside the National Gallery:   Buses outside the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square (1927).
Tottenham Court Road (1927):   The area through which Tottenham Court Road was built is mentioned in the Domesday Book as belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral.


NEARBY STREETS AND BUILDINGS ON THE UNDERGROUND MAP
Adam Street, WC2R · Adelaide Street, WC2N · Adelphi Terrace, WC2N · Agar Street, WC2N · Archway Mall, N19 · Batemans Buildings, W1D · Bear Street, WC2H · Bedforbury, WC2N · Bedford Chambers, WC2E · Bedford Street, WC2E · Bedford Street, WC2R · Bedfordbury, WC2N · Betterton Street, WC2H · Bow Street, WC2B · Bow Street, WC2E · Broad Court, WC2B · Brydges Place, WC2N · Buckingham Street, WC2N · Bucknall Street, WC2H · Cambridge Circus, WC2H · Cannon Street, WC2N · Carriage Hall, WC2E · Cecil Court, WC2N · Central Arcade, WC2E · Centre Point House, WC2H · Chandos Place, WC2N · Charing Cross Mansions, WC2H · Charing Cross Road, WC2H · Charing Cross, SW1A · Ching Court, WC2H · Clare Market, WC2E · Cockspur Street, SW1Y · Covent Garden Piazza, WC2E · Covent Garden, WC2E · Covent Garden, WC2H · Cranbourn Street, WC2H · Craven Passage, WC2N · Craven Street, WC2N · Denmark Place, WC2H · Denmark Street, WC2H · Dryden Street, WC2E · Dudley Court, WC2H · Duncannon Street, WC2N · Durham House Street, WC2N · Earlham Street, WC2H · Embankment Place, WC2N · Endell Street, WC2H · Excel Court, WC2H · Falconberg Court, W1D · Flichcroft Street, WC2H · Flitcroft Street, WC2H · Floral Street, WC2E · Frith Street, W1D · Garrick Street, WC2E · George Court, WC2N · Gerrard Place, W1D · Gerrard Street, W1D · Goodwins Court, WC2N · Goslett Yard, W1D · Goslett Yard, WC2H · Grape Street, WC2H · Great Newport Street, WC2H · Greek Court, WC2H · Greek Street, W1D · Hanover Place, WC2E · Heathcock Court, WC2R · Henrietta Street, WC2E · High Holborn, WC2A · High Holborn, WC2B · Hop Gardens, WC2N · Horse and Dolphin Yard, W1D · Hungerford House, WC2N · Irving Street, WC2H · Ivybridge Lane, WC2R · James Street, WC2E · John Adam Street, WC2N · Jubilee Hall Jubilee Market, WC2E · Jubilee Market, WC2E · King Street, WC2E · Kinnaird House, SW1Y · Langley Court, WC2E · Langley Street, WC2H · Leicester Place, WC2H · Leicester Square, WC2H · Leicester Street, WC2H · Lisle Street, WC2H · Litchfield Street, WC2H · Little Newport Street, WC2H · Long Acre, WC2E · Macclesfield Street, W1D · Macklin Street, WC2B · Maiden Lane, WC2E · Manette Street, W1D · Maple Leaf Walk, SW11 · May’s Court, WC2N · Mercer Street, WC2H · Monmouth Street, WC2H · Moor Street, W1D · Neal Street, WC2H · Neals Yard, WC2H · New Compton Street, WC2H · New Row, WC2N · Newport Court, WC2H · Newport Place, WC2H · Northumberland Avenue, SW1A · Northumberland Avenue, WC2N · Northumberland Street, WC2N · Nottingham Court, WC2H · Odhams Walk, WC2H · Old Compton Street, W1D · Old Copton Street, W1D · Orange Street, SW1Y · Orange Street, WC2H · Pall Mall East, SW1Y · Parker Mews, WC2B · Phoenix Street, WC2H · Robert Street, WC2N · Romilly Street, W1D · Rose Street, WC2E · Russell Chambers, WC2E · Russell Street, WC2E · Saint Giles High Street, WC2H · Saint Martin’s Lane, WC2N · Saint Martin’s Court, WC2H · Saint Martin’s Place, WC2N · Seven Dials Court, WC2H · Shaftesbury Avenue, W1D · Shaftesbury Avenue, WC2H · Shaftsbury Avenue, W1D · Shelton Street, WC2B · Shelton Street, WC2H · Shorts Gardens, WC2H · Slingsby Place, WC2E · Sounding Alley, E3 · Southampton Street, WC2E · Southampton Street, WC2R · Spring Gardens, SW1A · St Giles High Street, WC2H · St Jamess Chambers, SW1Y · St Martins Court, WC2N · St Martins Lane, WC2H · St Martins Lane, WC2N · St Martins Place, WC2H · St Martins Place, WC2N · St Martins Street, WC2H · Stacey Street, WC2H · Stukeley Street, WC2B · Suffolk Place, SE2 · Suffolk Place, SW1Y · Suffolk Street, SW1Y · Sutton Row, W1D · The Arches, WC2N · The Boardwalk, SE5 · The Gallery, E20 · The Mall, SW1E · The Mall, SW1Y · The Market Piazza, WC2E · The Market The Piazza, WC2E · The Market, WC2E · The National Gallery, WC2N · The Piazza, WC2E · Thomas Neal Centre, WC2H · Thomas Neal’s shopping centre, WC2H · Tower Court, WC2H · Tower Street, WC2H · Trafalgar Square, SW1Y · Trafalgar Square, WC2N · Upper Saint Martin’s Lane, WC2H · Upper St Martin’s Lane, WC2H · Upper St Martins Lane, WC2H · Victoria Embankment Gardens, WC2N · Villiers Street, WC2N · Warwick House Street, SW1Y · Watergate Walk, WC2N · Wedgewood Mews, W1D · Wedgwood Mews, W1D · West Street, WC2H · Whitcomb Street, WC2H · William IV Street, WC2N · York Buildings, WC2N · York Place, WC2N ·


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Central London, north east (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Central London, north east.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)

Cruchley's New Plan of London (1848) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cruchley's New Plan of London Shewing all the new and intended improvements to the Present Time. - Cruchley's Superior Map of London, with references to upwards of 500 Streets, Squares, Public Places & C. improved to 1848: with a compendium of all Place of Public Amusements also shewing the Railways & Stations.
G. F. Cruchley

Cary's New And Accurate Plan of London and Westminster (1818) FREE DOWNLOAD
Cary's map provides a detailed view of London. With print date of 1 January 1818, Cary's map has 27 panels arranged in 3 rows of 9 panels, each measuring approximately 6 1/2 by 10 5/8 inches. The complete map measures 32 1/8 by 59 1/2 inches. Digitising this map has involved aligning the panels into one contiguous map.
John Cary

John Rocque Map of London (1762) FREE DOWNLOAD
John Rocque (c. 1709–1762) was a surveyor, cartographer, engraver, map-seller and the son of Huguenot émigrés. Roque is now mainly remembered for his maps of London. This map dates from the second edition produced in 1762. London and his other maps brought him an appointment as cartographer to the Prince of Wales in 1751. His widow continued the business after his death. The map covers central London at a reduced level of detail compared with his 1745-6 map.
John Rocque, The Strand, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1843) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured.
Chapman and Hall, London

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1836) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Insets: A view of the Tower from London Bridge -- A view of London from Copenhagen Fields. Includes views of facades of 25 structures "A comparison of the principal buildings of London."
Chapman and Hall, London

Environs of London (1832) FREE DOWNLOAD
Engraved map. Hand coloured. Relief shown by hachures. A circle shows "Extent of the twopenny post delivery."
Chapman and Hall, London

London Underground Map (1921).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1921.
London Transport

The Environs of London (1865).  FREE DOWNLOAD
Prime meridian replaced with "Miles from the General Post Office." Relief shown by hachures. Map printed in black and white.
Published By J. H. Colton. No. 172 William St. New York

London Underground Map (1908).  FREE DOWNLOAD
London Underground map from 1908.
London Transport

Ordnance Survey of the London region (1939) FREE DOWNLOAD
Ordnance Survey colour map of the environs of London 1:10,560 scale
Ordnance Survey. Crown Copyright 1939.

Outer London (1901) FREE DOWNLOAD
Outer London shown in red, City of London in yellow. Relief shown by hachures.
Stanford's Geographical Establishment. London : Edward Stanford, 26 & 27, Cockspur St., Charing Cross, S.W. (1901)
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